Biomineral shell formation under ocean acidification

a shift from order to chaos

Susan C. Fitzer, Peter Chung, Francesco Maccherozzi, Sarnjeet S. Dhesi, Nicholas A. Kamenos, Vernon R. Phoenix, Maggie Cusack

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)
23 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Biomineral production in marine organisms employs transient phases of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the construction of crystalline shells. Increasing seawater pCO2 leads to ocean acidification (OA) with a reduction in oceanic carbonate concentration which could have a negative impact on shell formation and therefore survival. We demonstrate significant changes in the hydrated and dehydrated forms of ACC in the aragonite and calcite layers of Mytilus edulis shells cultured under acidification conditions (1000 μatm pCO2) compared to present day conditions (380 μatm pCO2). In OA conditions, Mytilus edulis has more ACC at crystalisation sites. Here, we use the high-spatial resolution of synchrotron X-ray Photo Emission Electron Microscopy (XPEEM) combined with X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) to investigate the influence of OA on the ACC formation in the shells of adult Mytilus edulis. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) confirms that OA reduces crystallographic control of shell formation. The results demonstrate that OA induces more ACC formation and less crystallographic control in mussels suggesting that ACC is used as a repair mechanism to combat shell damage under OA. However, the resultant reduced crystallographic control in mussels raises concerns for shell protective function under predation and changing environments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number21076
Number of pages7
JournalScientific Reports
Volume6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2016

Fingerprint

chaotic dynamics
calcium carbonate
shell
atomic absorption spectroscopy
aragonite
ocean acidification
electron microscopy
backscatter
diffraction
X-ray spectroscopy
repair
acidification
spatial resolution
calcite
predation
seawater
carbonate
electron
damage

Keywords

  • geochemistry
  • marine biology
  • shell formation

Cite this

Fitzer, S. C., Chung, P., Maccherozzi, F., Dhesi, S. S., Kamenos, N. A., Phoenix, V. R., & Cusack, M. (2016). Biomineral shell formation under ocean acidification: a shift from order to chaos. Scientific Reports, 6, [21076]. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep21076
Fitzer, Susan C. ; Chung, Peter ; Maccherozzi, Francesco ; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S. ; Kamenos, Nicholas A. ; Phoenix, Vernon R. ; Cusack, Maggie. / Biomineral shell formation under ocean acidification : a shift from order to chaos. In: Scientific Reports. 2016 ; Vol. 6.
@article{c7d7d300e33a4b9689c7cbbc51e45265,
title = "Biomineral shell formation under ocean acidification: a shift from order to chaos",
abstract = "Biomineral production in marine organisms employs transient phases of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the construction of crystalline shells. Increasing seawater pCO2 leads to ocean acidification (OA) with a reduction in oceanic carbonate concentration which could have a negative impact on shell formation and therefore survival. We demonstrate significant changes in the hydrated and dehydrated forms of ACC in the aragonite and calcite layers of Mytilus edulis shells cultured under acidification conditions (1000 μatm pCO2) compared to present day conditions (380 μatm pCO2). In OA conditions, Mytilus edulis has more ACC at crystalisation sites. Here, we use the high-spatial resolution of synchrotron X-ray Photo Emission Electron Microscopy (XPEEM) combined with X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) to investigate the influence of OA on the ACC formation in the shells of adult Mytilus edulis. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) confirms that OA reduces crystallographic control of shell formation. The results demonstrate that OA induces more ACC formation and less crystallographic control in mussels suggesting that ACC is used as a repair mechanism to combat shell damage under OA. However, the resultant reduced crystallographic control in mussels raises concerns for shell protective function under predation and changing environments.",
keywords = "geochemistry, marine biology, shell formation",
author = "Fitzer, {Susan C.} and Peter Chung and Francesco Maccherozzi and Dhesi, {Sarnjeet S.} and Kamenos, {Nicholas A.} and Phoenix, {Vernon R.} and Maggie Cusack",
year = "2016",
month = "2",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1038/srep21076",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
journal = "Scientific Reports",
issn = "2045-2322",

}

Fitzer, SC, Chung, P, Maccherozzi, F, Dhesi, SS, Kamenos, NA, Phoenix, VR & Cusack, M 2016, 'Biomineral shell formation under ocean acidification: a shift from order to chaos', Scientific Reports, vol. 6, 21076. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep21076

Biomineral shell formation under ocean acidification : a shift from order to chaos. / Fitzer, Susan C.; Chung, Peter; Maccherozzi, Francesco; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; Kamenos, Nicholas A.; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Cusack, Maggie.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, 21076, 15.02.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Biomineral shell formation under ocean acidification

T2 - a shift from order to chaos

AU - Fitzer, Susan C.

AU - Chung, Peter

AU - Maccherozzi, Francesco

AU - Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.

AU - Kamenos, Nicholas A.

AU - Phoenix, Vernon R.

AU - Cusack, Maggie

PY - 2016/2/15

Y1 - 2016/2/15

N2 - Biomineral production in marine organisms employs transient phases of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the construction of crystalline shells. Increasing seawater pCO2 leads to ocean acidification (OA) with a reduction in oceanic carbonate concentration which could have a negative impact on shell formation and therefore survival. We demonstrate significant changes in the hydrated and dehydrated forms of ACC in the aragonite and calcite layers of Mytilus edulis shells cultured under acidification conditions (1000 μatm pCO2) compared to present day conditions (380 μatm pCO2). In OA conditions, Mytilus edulis has more ACC at crystalisation sites. Here, we use the high-spatial resolution of synchrotron X-ray Photo Emission Electron Microscopy (XPEEM) combined with X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) to investigate the influence of OA on the ACC formation in the shells of adult Mytilus edulis. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) confirms that OA reduces crystallographic control of shell formation. The results demonstrate that OA induces more ACC formation and less crystallographic control in mussels suggesting that ACC is used as a repair mechanism to combat shell damage under OA. However, the resultant reduced crystallographic control in mussels raises concerns for shell protective function under predation and changing environments.

AB - Biomineral production in marine organisms employs transient phases of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the construction of crystalline shells. Increasing seawater pCO2 leads to ocean acidification (OA) with a reduction in oceanic carbonate concentration which could have a negative impact on shell formation and therefore survival. We demonstrate significant changes in the hydrated and dehydrated forms of ACC in the aragonite and calcite layers of Mytilus edulis shells cultured under acidification conditions (1000 μatm pCO2) compared to present day conditions (380 μatm pCO2). In OA conditions, Mytilus edulis has more ACC at crystalisation sites. Here, we use the high-spatial resolution of synchrotron X-ray Photo Emission Electron Microscopy (XPEEM) combined with X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) to investigate the influence of OA on the ACC formation in the shells of adult Mytilus edulis. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) confirms that OA reduces crystallographic control of shell formation. The results demonstrate that OA induces more ACC formation and less crystallographic control in mussels suggesting that ACC is used as a repair mechanism to combat shell damage under OA. However, the resultant reduced crystallographic control in mussels raises concerns for shell protective function under predation and changing environments.

KW - geochemistry

KW - marine biology

KW - shell formation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84958211799&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/srep21076

DO - 10.1038/srep21076

M3 - Article

VL - 6

JO - Scientific Reports

JF - Scientific Reports

SN - 2045-2322

M1 - 21076

ER -