Musculoskeletal problem, such as traumatic injury, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis, is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and is therefore a crucial branch of public health. Biomechanics has been proven to play a critical role in musculoskeletal pathology, treatment, and rehabilitation. Rehabilitation describes specialized healthcare dedicated to improving, maintaining, or restoring physiological strength, cognition, and mobility with maximized results. It helps an individual achieve the highest level of function or greatest independence and quality of life possible after illness, injury, or surgery using physical training, instruments, devices, or other methods. Advances in rehabilitation, including the theory, paradigm, protocol, modality, invention, and engineering, can improve the development of modern medicine and also the quality of life especially for the disabled and elderly people. The main focus of this special issue is on innovative theory and application of biomechanics to understand musculoskeletal pathology and to improve the techniques for the treatment and rehabilitation.