BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs

Stephen P. Carter, Mark A Chambers, Stephen P. Rushton, Mark D.F. Shirley, Pia Schuchert, Stephane Pietravalle, Alistair Murray, Fiona Rogers, George Gettinby, Graham C. Smith, Richard J Delahay, R Glyn Hewinson, Robbie A McDonald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Wildlife is a global source of endemic and emerging infectious diseases. The control of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle in Britain and Ireland is hindered by persistent infection in wild badgers (Meles meles). Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to reduce the severity and progression of experimentally induced TB in captive badgers. Analysis of data from a four-year clinical field study, conducted at the social group level, suggested a similar, direct protective effect of BCG in a wild badger population. Here we present new evidence from the same study identifying both a direct beneficial effect of vaccination in individual badgers and an indirect protective effect in unvaccinated cubs. We show that intramuscular injection of BCG reduced by 76% (Odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.52) the risk of free-living vaccinated individuals testing positive to a diagnostic test combination to detect progressive infection. A more sensitive panel of tests for the detection of infection per se identified a reduction of 54% (Odds ratio = 0.46, 95% CI 0.26–0.88) in the risk of a positive result following vaccination. In addition, we show the risk of unvaccinated badger cubs, but not adults, testing positive to an even more sensitive panel of diagnostic tests decreased significantly as the proportion of vaccinated individuals in their social group increased (Odds ratio = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.76; P = 0.03). When more than a third of their social group had been vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated cubs was reduced by 79% (Odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05–0.81; P = 0.02).
LanguageEnglish
Article numbere49833
Number of pages8
JournalPLOS One
Volume7
Issue number12
Early online date12 Dec 2012
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Dec 2012

Fingerprint

Mustelidae
Mycobacterium bovis BCG
badgers
Bacilli
Mycobacterium bovis
tuberculosis
Vaccination
Tuberculosis
odds ratio
vaccination
confidence interval
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Infection
infection
Routine Diagnostic Tests
diagnostic techniques
protective effect
Emerging Communicable Diseases
Testing

Keywords

  • tuberculosis
  • badger
  • vaccinated badgers
  • BCG vaccine
  • TB in cattle

Cite this

Carter, S. P., Chambers, M. A., Rushton, S. P., Shirley, M. D. F., Schuchert, P., Pietravalle, S., ... McDonald, R. A. (2012). BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs. PLOS One, 7(12), [e49833]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049833
Carter, Stephen P. ; Chambers, Mark A ; Rushton, Stephen P. ; Shirley, Mark D.F. ; Schuchert, Pia ; Pietravalle, Stephane ; Murray, Alistair ; Rogers, Fiona ; Gettinby, George ; Smith, Graham C. ; Delahay, Richard J ; Hewinson, R Glyn ; McDonald, Robbie A. / BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs. In: PLOS One. 2012 ; Vol. 7, No. 12.
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Carter, SP, Chambers, MA, Rushton, SP, Shirley, MDF, Schuchert, P, Pietravalle, S, Murray, A, Rogers, F, Gettinby, G, Smith, GC, Delahay, RJ, Hewinson, RG & McDonald, RA 2012, 'BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs' PLOS One, vol. 7, no. 12, e49833. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049833

BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs. / Carter, Stephen P.; Chambers, Mark A; Rushton, Stephen P.; Shirley, Mark D.F.; Schuchert, Pia; Pietravalle, Stephane; Murray, Alistair; Rogers, Fiona; Gettinby, George; Smith, Graham C.; Delahay, Richard J; Hewinson, R Glyn; McDonald, Robbie A.

In: PLOS One, Vol. 7, No. 12, e49833, 12.12.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs

AU - Carter, Stephen P.

AU - Chambers, Mark A

AU - Rushton, Stephen P.

AU - Shirley, Mark D.F.

AU - Schuchert, Pia

AU - Pietravalle, Stephane

AU - Murray, Alistair

AU - Rogers, Fiona

AU - Gettinby, George

AU - Smith, Graham C.

AU - Delahay, Richard J

AU - Hewinson, R Glyn

AU - McDonald, Robbie A

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Carter SP, Chambers MA, Rushton SP, Shirley MDF, Schuchert P, Pietravalle S et al. BCG vaccination reduces risk of tuberculosis infection in vaccinated badgers and unvaccinated badger cubs. PLOS One. 2012 Dec 12;7(12). e49833. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049833