Barriers to ethnic minority and women's enterprise: existing evidence, policy tensions and unsettled questions

Sara Carter, Samuel Mwaura, Monder Ram, Kiran Trehan, Trevor Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

82 Citations (Scopus)
372 Downloads (Pure)


There are longstanding policy concerns that ethnic minorities and women have relatively lower enterprise participation rates and performance levels. This paper presents an overarching review of the evidence that currently exists with regard to enterprise diversity. It discusses the context of ethnic minorities and women in enterprise, and summarises research evidence relating to their relative access to finance, market selection and management skills respectively. Policy within the field of diversity and enterprise is characterised by a number of tensions and unresolved questions including the presence of perceived or actual discrimination, the quantity and quality of ethnic minority and women-led businesses, potential market failure in the support provided to diverse enterprises, and the substantive uniqueness of ethnic minority and women-led enterprises. Particular implications for policy and practice as well as directions for future research are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-69
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Small Business Journal
Issue number1
Early online date18 Jan 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2015


  • SME developement
  • women
  • ethnic minorites
  • entrepreneurship policy

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  • Activities

    • 1 Invited talk

    The impact of faith and enterprise in community integration and poverty alleviation

    Samuel Mwaura (Speaker)

    24 Jun 2016

    Activity: Talk or presentation typesInvited talk

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