Bézier curves-based optimal trajectory design for multirotor UAVs with any-angle pathfinding algorithms

Haitham A L Satai, Musaddak M. Abdul Zahra, Zaid I. Rasool, Ridhab Sami Abd-Ali, Catalin I. Pruncu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) play an imperative role in many real-world applications in a variety of scenarios characterized by a high density of obstacles with different heights. Due to the complicated operation areas of UAVs and complex constraints associated with the assigned mission, there should be a suitable path to fly. Therefore, the most relevant challenge is how to plan a flyable path for a UAV without collisions with obstacles. This paper demonstrates how a flyable and continuous trajectory was constructed by using any-angle pathfinding algorithms, which are Basic Theta*, Lazy Theta*, and Phi* algorithms for a multirotor UAV in a cluttered environment. The three algorithms were modified by adopting a modified cost function during their implementation that considers the elevation of nodes. First, suitable paths are generated by using a modified version of the three algorithms. After that, four Bézier curves-based approaches are proposed to smooth the generated paths to be converted to flyable paths (trajectories). To determine the most suitable approach, particularly when searching for an optimal and collision-free trajectory design, an innovative evaluation process is proposed and applied in a variety of different size environments. The evaluation process results show high success rates of the four approaches; however, the approach with the highest success rate is adopted. Finally, based on the results of the evaluation process, a novel algorithm is proposed to increase the efficiency of the selected approach to the optimality in the construction process of the trajectory.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2460
Number of pages22
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2021


  • path planning
  • trajectory planning
  • Basic Theta
  • Lazy Theta
  • Phi
  • Bézier curves


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