Generation connected to electrical distribution systems requires reliable and timely detection of loss of-mains (islanding). Passive loss of mains detection relays typically use measurements of parameters such as frequency, phase, and the magnitudes of voltage and current. If a part of the power network becomes islanded and there is a very close match between generation and demand of both active and reactive power, there is a risk that the relay will not be able to detect the loss of mains (LOM) event quickly, or perhaps at all. This is the “non-detection zone” or NDZ. This paper proposes a combination of 2 generator control techniques which allow the NDZ to be avoided even when the generator has significant inertia. Firstly, the natural instability (when islanded) of a grid-connected control scheme consisting of integral and droop controls is recognized and exploited. Secondly, a simple strategy is added which makes occasional small, steady-state adjustments to the reactive power output of the generator. The scheme has been tested in the laboratory and shows that the 2 second detection time required by IEEE 1547 can be achieved, even when an exact match of active power generation and demand is initially configured, and the generator has a significant inertia.
- non-detection zone
- passive loss-of-mains
- controlled reactive power mismatches
- synchronous generation
- low bandwidth control loops
Roscoe, A., Burt, G., & Bright, C. G. (2014). Avoiding the non-detection zone of passive loss-of-mains (islanding) relays for synchronous generation by using low bandwidth control loops and controlled reactive power mismatches. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 5(2), 602-611. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2013.2279016