Availability, operation & maintenance costs of offshore wind turbines with different drive train configurations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Different configurations of gearbox, generator and power converter exist for offshore wind turbines. This paper investigated the performance of four prominent drive train configurations over a range of sites distinguished by their distance to shore. Failure rate data from onshore and offshore wind turbine populations was used where available or systematically estimated where no data was available. This was inputted along with repair resource requirements to an offshore accessibility and operation and maintenance model to calculate availability and operation and maintenance costs for a baseline wind farm consisting of 100 turbines. The results predicted that turbines with a permanent magnet generator and a fully rated power converter will have a higher availability and lower operation and maintenance costs than turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. This held true for all sites in this analysis. It was also predicted that in turbines with a permanent magnet generator, the direct drive configuration has the highest availability and lowest operation and maintenance costs followed by the turbines with 2 stage and 3 stage gearboxes.
LanguageEnglish
Pages361-378
Number of pages18
JournalWind Energy
Volume20
Issue number2
Early online date26 Jul 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2017

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Offshore wind turbines
Turbines
Availability
Costs
Power converters
Permanent magnets
Asynchronous generators
Farms
Repair

Keywords

  • offshore wind turbine
  • wind farm
  • operational performance
  • permanent magnet generator
  • drive train
  • power train
  • doubly-fed induction generator

Cite this

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title = "Availability, operation & maintenance costs of offshore wind turbines with different drive train configurations",
abstract = "Different configurations of gearbox, generator and power converter exist for offshore wind turbines. This paper investigated the performance of four prominent drive train configurations over a range of sites distinguished by their distance to shore. Failure rate data from onshore and offshore wind turbine populations was used where available or systematically estimated where no data was available. This was inputted along with repair resource requirements to an offshore accessibility and operation and maintenance model to calculate availability and operation and maintenance costs for a baseline wind farm consisting of 100 turbines. The results predicted that turbines with a permanent magnet generator and a fully rated power converter will have a higher availability and lower operation and maintenance costs than turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. This held true for all sites in this analysis. It was also predicted that in turbines with a permanent magnet generator, the direct drive configuration has the highest availability and lowest operation and maintenance costs followed by the turbines with 2 stage and 3 stage gearboxes.",
keywords = "offshore wind turbine, wind farm, operational performance, permanent magnet generator, drive train, power train, doubly-fed induction generator",
author = "James Carroll and Alasdair McDonald and Iain Dinwoodie and David McMillan and Matthew Revie and Iraklis Lazakis",
note = "This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Carroll, J., McDonald, A., Dinwoodie, I., McMillan, D., Revie, M. & I. Lazakis (2016) Availability, Operation & Maintenance Costs of Offshore Wind Turbines with Different Drive Train Configurations, Wind Energy., which has been published in final form at [DOI TBC upon official publication]. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving",
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doi = "10.1002/we.2011",
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AU - McMillan, David

AU - Revie, Matthew

AU - Lazakis, Iraklis

N1 - This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Carroll, J., McDonald, A., Dinwoodie, I., McMillan, D., Revie, M. & I. Lazakis (2016) Availability, Operation & Maintenance Costs of Offshore Wind Turbines with Different Drive Train Configurations, Wind Energy., which has been published in final form at [DOI TBC upon official publication]. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving

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N2 - Different configurations of gearbox, generator and power converter exist for offshore wind turbines. This paper investigated the performance of four prominent drive train configurations over a range of sites distinguished by their distance to shore. Failure rate data from onshore and offshore wind turbine populations was used where available or systematically estimated where no data was available. This was inputted along with repair resource requirements to an offshore accessibility and operation and maintenance model to calculate availability and operation and maintenance costs for a baseline wind farm consisting of 100 turbines. The results predicted that turbines with a permanent magnet generator and a fully rated power converter will have a higher availability and lower operation and maintenance costs than turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. This held true for all sites in this analysis. It was also predicted that in turbines with a permanent magnet generator, the direct drive configuration has the highest availability and lowest operation and maintenance costs followed by the turbines with 2 stage and 3 stage gearboxes.

AB - Different configurations of gearbox, generator and power converter exist for offshore wind turbines. This paper investigated the performance of four prominent drive train configurations over a range of sites distinguished by their distance to shore. Failure rate data from onshore and offshore wind turbine populations was used where available or systematically estimated where no data was available. This was inputted along with repair resource requirements to an offshore accessibility and operation and maintenance model to calculate availability and operation and maintenance costs for a baseline wind farm consisting of 100 turbines. The results predicted that turbines with a permanent magnet generator and a fully rated power converter will have a higher availability and lower operation and maintenance costs than turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. This held true for all sites in this analysis. It was also predicted that in turbines with a permanent magnet generator, the direct drive configuration has the highest availability and lowest operation and maintenance costs followed by the turbines with 2 stage and 3 stage gearboxes.

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KW - power train

KW - doubly-fed induction generator

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