Atomic layer deposition of crystalline molybdenum oxide thin films and phase control by post-deposition annealing

Miika Mattinen, Peter J. King, Leonid Khriachtchev, Mikko J. Heikkilä, Ben Fleming, Simon Rushworth, Kenichiro Mizohata, Kristoffer Meinander, Jyrki Räisänen, Mikko Ritala, Markku Leskelä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Molybdenum forms a range of oxides with different stoichiometries and crystal structures, which lead to different properties and performance in diverse applications. Herein, crystalline molybdenum oxide thin films with controlled phase composition are deposited by atomic layer deposition. The MoO2(thd)2 and O3 as precursors enable well-controlled growth of uniform and conformal films at 200–275 °C. The as-deposited films are rough and, in most cases, consist of a mixture of α- and β-MoO3 as well as an unidentified suboxide MoOx (2.75 ≤ x ≤ 2.89) phase. The phase composition can be tuned by changing deposition conditions. The film stoichiometry is close to MoO3 and the films are relatively pure, the main impurity being hydrogen (2–7 at-%), with ≤1 at-% of carbon and nitrogen. Post-deposition annealing is studied in situ by high-temperature X-ray diffraction in air, O2, N2, and forming gas (10% H2/90% N2) atmospheres. Phase-pure films of MoO2 and α-MoO3 are obtained by annealing at 450 °C in forming gas and O2, respectively. The ability to tailor the phase composition of MoOx films deposited by scalable atomic layer deposition method represents an important step towards various applications of molybdenum oxides.
LanguageEnglish
Pages17-27
Number of pages11
JournalMaterials Today Chemistry
Volume9
Early online date11 May 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sep 2018

Fingerprint

Molybdenum oxide
Phase control
Atomic layer deposition
Oxide films
Annealing
Crystalline materials
Thin films
Phase composition
Stoichiometry
Gases
Molybdenum
Oxides
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Carbon
Crystal structure
Impurities
X ray diffraction
Air
molybdenum trioxide

Keywords

  • atomic layer deposition
  • molybdenum oxide
  • MoO3
  • MoO2
  • thin films

Cite this

Mattinen, M., King, P. J., Khriachtchev, L., Heikkilä, M. J., Fleming, B., Rushworth, S., ... Leskelä, M. (2018). Atomic layer deposition of crystalline molybdenum oxide thin films and phase control by post-deposition annealing. Materials Today Chemistry, 9, 17-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtchem.2018.04.005
Mattinen, Miika ; King, Peter J. ; Khriachtchev, Leonid ; Heikkilä, Mikko J. ; Fleming, Ben ; Rushworth, Simon ; Mizohata, Kenichiro ; Meinander, Kristoffer ; Räisänen, Jyrki ; Ritala, Mikko ; Leskelä, Markku . / Atomic layer deposition of crystalline molybdenum oxide thin films and phase control by post-deposition annealing. In: Materials Today Chemistry. 2018 ; Vol. 9. pp. 17-27.
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abstract = "Molybdenum forms a range of oxides with different stoichiometries and crystal structures, which lead to different properties and performance in diverse applications. Herein, crystalline molybdenum oxide thin films with controlled phase composition are deposited by atomic layer deposition. The MoO2(thd)2 and O3 as precursors enable well-controlled growth of uniform and conformal films at 200–275 °C. The as-deposited films are rough and, in most cases, consist of a mixture of α- and β-MoO3 as well as an unidentified suboxide MoOx (2.75 ≤ x ≤ 2.89) phase. The phase composition can be tuned by changing deposition conditions. The film stoichiometry is close to MoO3 and the films are relatively pure, the main impurity being hydrogen (2–7 at-{\%}), with ≤1 at-{\%} of carbon and nitrogen. Post-deposition annealing is studied in situ by high-temperature X-ray diffraction in air, O2, N2, and forming gas (10{\%} H2/90{\%} N2) atmospheres. Phase-pure films of MoO2 and α-MoO3 are obtained by annealing at 450 °C in forming gas and O2, respectively. The ability to tailor the phase composition of MoOx films deposited by scalable atomic layer deposition method represents an important step towards various applications of molybdenum oxides.",
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Mattinen, M, King, PJ, Khriachtchev, L, Heikkilä, MJ, Fleming, B, Rushworth, S, Mizohata, K, Meinander, K, Räisänen, J, Ritala, M & Leskelä, M 2018, 'Atomic layer deposition of crystalline molybdenum oxide thin films and phase control by post-deposition annealing' Materials Today Chemistry, vol. 9, pp. 17-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtchem.2018.04.005

Atomic layer deposition of crystalline molybdenum oxide thin films and phase control by post-deposition annealing. / Mattinen, Miika ; King, Peter J.; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Fleming, Ben; Rushworth, Simon; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Meinander, Kristoffer; Räisänen, Jyrki ; Ritala, Mikko ; Leskelä, Markku .

In: Materials Today Chemistry, Vol. 9, 30.09.2018, p. 17-27.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Atomic layer deposition of crystalline molybdenum oxide thin films and phase control by post-deposition annealing

AU - Mattinen, Miika

AU - King, Peter J.

AU - Khriachtchev, Leonid

AU - Heikkilä, Mikko J.

AU - Fleming, Ben

AU - Rushworth, Simon

AU - Mizohata, Kenichiro

AU - Meinander, Kristoffer

AU - Räisänen, Jyrki

AU - Ritala, Mikko

AU - Leskelä, Markku

PY - 2018/9/30

Y1 - 2018/9/30

N2 - Molybdenum forms a range of oxides with different stoichiometries and crystal structures, which lead to different properties and performance in diverse applications. Herein, crystalline molybdenum oxide thin films with controlled phase composition are deposited by atomic layer deposition. The MoO2(thd)2 and O3 as precursors enable well-controlled growth of uniform and conformal films at 200–275 °C. The as-deposited films are rough and, in most cases, consist of a mixture of α- and β-MoO3 as well as an unidentified suboxide MoOx (2.75 ≤ x ≤ 2.89) phase. The phase composition can be tuned by changing deposition conditions. The film stoichiometry is close to MoO3 and the films are relatively pure, the main impurity being hydrogen (2–7 at-%), with ≤1 at-% of carbon and nitrogen. Post-deposition annealing is studied in situ by high-temperature X-ray diffraction in air, O2, N2, and forming gas (10% H2/90% N2) atmospheres. Phase-pure films of MoO2 and α-MoO3 are obtained by annealing at 450 °C in forming gas and O2, respectively. The ability to tailor the phase composition of MoOx films deposited by scalable atomic layer deposition method represents an important step towards various applications of molybdenum oxides.

AB - Molybdenum forms a range of oxides with different stoichiometries and crystal structures, which lead to different properties and performance in diverse applications. Herein, crystalline molybdenum oxide thin films with controlled phase composition are deposited by atomic layer deposition. The MoO2(thd)2 and O3 as precursors enable well-controlled growth of uniform and conformal films at 200–275 °C. The as-deposited films are rough and, in most cases, consist of a mixture of α- and β-MoO3 as well as an unidentified suboxide MoOx (2.75 ≤ x ≤ 2.89) phase. The phase composition can be tuned by changing deposition conditions. The film stoichiometry is close to MoO3 and the films are relatively pure, the main impurity being hydrogen (2–7 at-%), with ≤1 at-% of carbon and nitrogen. Post-deposition annealing is studied in situ by high-temperature X-ray diffraction in air, O2, N2, and forming gas (10% H2/90% N2) atmospheres. Phase-pure films of MoO2 and α-MoO3 are obtained by annealing at 450 °C in forming gas and O2, respectively. The ability to tailor the phase composition of MoOx films deposited by scalable atomic layer deposition method represents an important step towards various applications of molybdenum oxides.

KW - atomic layer deposition

KW - molybdenum oxide

KW - MoO3

KW - MoO2

KW - thin films

UR - https://www.journals.elsevier.com/materials-today-chemistry

U2 - 10.1016/j.mtchem.2018.04.005

DO - 10.1016/j.mtchem.2018.04.005

M3 - Article

VL - 9

SP - 17

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JO - Materials Today Chemistry

T2 - Materials Today Chemistry

JF - Materials Today Chemistry

SN - 2468-5194

ER -