Application of the Transtheoretical model to physical activity in older adults with Type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease

Alison Kirk, F. MacMillan, Nikki Webster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Investigate the relationship between physical activity and components of the Transtheoretical model (TTM), in an older clinical population. Method: 85 people with Type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (age 64.8 8.2 yrs) completed TTM questionnaires. Physical activity was assessed using the 7-day recall questionnaire. Results: Differences across stage of change were found for physical activity, self-efficacy, the pros of more physical active and 5 processes of change. Physical activity, self-efficacy and the pros of more activity were greater in the maintenance than contemplation stage. Stage differences in processes were: consciousness raising (increased contemplation to action), self-liberation (increased contemplation to maintenance), helping relationships (increased preparation to maintenance), counter conditioning (increased contemplation to preparation, action and maintenance) and reinforcement management (increased contemplation and preparation to maintenance). Experiential processes were used more than behavioural processes in the preparation stage. Conclusions: Findings support the theoretical predictions of the TTM and the use of this model in older clinical populations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)320-324
Number of pages4
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010


  • clinical populations
  • transtheoretical model components
  • stage of exercise behaviour change
  • self-efficacy
  • decisional balance
  • processes of change

Cite this