Anti-GD1a antibodies activate complement and calpain to injure distal motor nodes of Ranvier in mice

R. McGonigal, E.G. Rowan, K.N Greenshields, S. Halstead, P.D Humphreys, R.P Rother, K. Furukawa, H.J. Willison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

85 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The motor axonal variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome is associated with anti-GD1a immunoglobulin antibodies, which are believed to be the pathogenic factor. In previous studies we have demonstrated the motor terminal to be a vulnerable site. Here we show both in vivo and ex vivo, that nodes of Ranvier in intramuscular motor nerve bundles are also targeted by anti-GD1a antibody in a gradient-dependent manner, with greatest vulnerability at distal nodes. Complement deposition is associated with prominent nodal injury as monitored with electrophysiological recordings and fluorescence microscopy. Complete loss of nodal protein staining, including voltage-gated sodium channels and ankyrin G, occurs and is completely protected by both complement and calpain inhibition, although the latter provides no protection against electrophysiological dysfunction. In ex vivo motor and sensory nerve trunk preparations, antibody deposits are only observed in experimentally desheathed nerves, which are thereby rendered susceptible to complement-dependent morphological disruption, nodal protein loss and reduced electrical activity of the axon. These studies provide a detailed mechanism by which loss of axonal conduction can occur in a distal dominant pattern as observed in a proportion of patients with motor axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome, and also provide an explanation for the occurrence of rapid recovery from complete paralysis and electrophysiological in-excitability. The study also identifies therapeutic approaches in which nodal architecture can be preserved.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1944-1960
Number of pages17
JournalBrain
Volume133
Issue number7
Early online date30 May 2010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Fingerprint

Nodal Protein
Ranvier's Nodes
Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Calpain
Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies
Ankyrins
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels
Antibodies
Fluorescence Microscopy
Paralysis
Axons
Immunoglobulins
Staining and Labeling
Wounds and Injuries
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • anti-gd1a antibodies
  • antibodies
  • activate complement
  • calpain
  • distal motor nodes
  • ranvier
  • mice

Cite this

McGonigal, R., Rowan, E. G., Greenshields, K. N., Halstead, S., Humphreys, P. D., Rother, R. P., ... Willison, H. J. (2010). Anti-GD1a antibodies activate complement and calpain to injure distal motor nodes of Ranvier in mice. Brain, 133(7), 1944-1960. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awq119
McGonigal, R. ; Rowan, E.G. ; Greenshields, K.N ; Halstead, S. ; Humphreys, P.D ; Rother, R.P ; Furukawa, K. ; Willison, H.J. / Anti-GD1a antibodies activate complement and calpain to injure distal motor nodes of Ranvier in mice. In: Brain. 2010 ; Vol. 133, No. 7. pp. 1944-1960.
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abstract = "The motor axonal variant of Guillain-Barr{\'e} syndrome is associated with anti-GD1a immunoglobulin antibodies, which are believed to be the pathogenic factor. In previous studies we have demonstrated the motor terminal to be a vulnerable site. Here we show both in vivo and ex vivo, that nodes of Ranvier in intramuscular motor nerve bundles are also targeted by anti-GD1a antibody in a gradient-dependent manner, with greatest vulnerability at distal nodes. Complement deposition is associated with prominent nodal injury as monitored with electrophysiological recordings and fluorescence microscopy. Complete loss of nodal protein staining, including voltage-gated sodium channels and ankyrin G, occurs and is completely protected by both complement and calpain inhibition, although the latter provides no protection against electrophysiological dysfunction. In ex vivo motor and sensory nerve trunk preparations, antibody deposits are only observed in experimentally desheathed nerves, which are thereby rendered susceptible to complement-dependent morphological disruption, nodal protein loss and reduced electrical activity of the axon. These studies provide a detailed mechanism by which loss of axonal conduction can occur in a distal dominant pattern as observed in a proportion of patients with motor axonal Guillain-Barr{\'e} syndrome, and also provide an explanation for the occurrence of rapid recovery from complete paralysis and electrophysiological in-excitability. The study also identifies therapeutic approaches in which nodal architecture can be preserved.",
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McGonigal, R, Rowan, EG, Greenshields, KN, Halstead, S, Humphreys, PD, Rother, RP, Furukawa, K & Willison, HJ 2010, 'Anti-GD1a antibodies activate complement and calpain to injure distal motor nodes of Ranvier in mice' Brain, vol. 133, no. 7, pp. 1944-1960. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awq119

Anti-GD1a antibodies activate complement and calpain to injure distal motor nodes of Ranvier in mice. / McGonigal, R.; Rowan, E.G.; Greenshields, K.N; Halstead, S.; Humphreys, P.D; Rother, R.P; Furukawa, K.; Willison, H.J.

In: Brain, Vol. 133, No. 7, 2010, p. 1944-1960.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Anti-GD1a antibodies activate complement and calpain to injure distal motor nodes of Ranvier in mice

AU - McGonigal, R.

AU - Rowan, E.G.

AU - Greenshields, K.N

AU - Halstead, S.

AU - Humphreys, P.D

AU - Rother, R.P

AU - Furukawa, K.

AU - Willison, H.J.

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - The motor axonal variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome is associated with anti-GD1a immunoglobulin antibodies, which are believed to be the pathogenic factor. In previous studies we have demonstrated the motor terminal to be a vulnerable site. Here we show both in vivo and ex vivo, that nodes of Ranvier in intramuscular motor nerve bundles are also targeted by anti-GD1a antibody in a gradient-dependent manner, with greatest vulnerability at distal nodes. Complement deposition is associated with prominent nodal injury as monitored with electrophysiological recordings and fluorescence microscopy. Complete loss of nodal protein staining, including voltage-gated sodium channels and ankyrin G, occurs and is completely protected by both complement and calpain inhibition, although the latter provides no protection against electrophysiological dysfunction. In ex vivo motor and sensory nerve trunk preparations, antibody deposits are only observed in experimentally desheathed nerves, which are thereby rendered susceptible to complement-dependent morphological disruption, nodal protein loss and reduced electrical activity of the axon. These studies provide a detailed mechanism by which loss of axonal conduction can occur in a distal dominant pattern as observed in a proportion of patients with motor axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome, and also provide an explanation for the occurrence of rapid recovery from complete paralysis and electrophysiological in-excitability. The study also identifies therapeutic approaches in which nodal architecture can be preserved.

AB - The motor axonal variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome is associated with anti-GD1a immunoglobulin antibodies, which are believed to be the pathogenic factor. In previous studies we have demonstrated the motor terminal to be a vulnerable site. Here we show both in vivo and ex vivo, that nodes of Ranvier in intramuscular motor nerve bundles are also targeted by anti-GD1a antibody in a gradient-dependent manner, with greatest vulnerability at distal nodes. Complement deposition is associated with prominent nodal injury as monitored with electrophysiological recordings and fluorescence microscopy. Complete loss of nodal protein staining, including voltage-gated sodium channels and ankyrin G, occurs and is completely protected by both complement and calpain inhibition, although the latter provides no protection against electrophysiological dysfunction. In ex vivo motor and sensory nerve trunk preparations, antibody deposits are only observed in experimentally desheathed nerves, which are thereby rendered susceptible to complement-dependent morphological disruption, nodal protein loss and reduced electrical activity of the axon. These studies provide a detailed mechanism by which loss of axonal conduction can occur in a distal dominant pattern as observed in a proportion of patients with motor axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome, and also provide an explanation for the occurrence of rapid recovery from complete paralysis and electrophysiological in-excitability. The study also identifies therapeutic approaches in which nodal architecture can be preserved.

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KW - distal motor nodes

KW - ranvier

KW - mice

U2 - 10.1093/brain/awq119

DO - 10.1093/brain/awq119

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