Analysis of the thermomechanical inconsistency of some extended hydrodynamic models at high Knudsen number

Kokou Dadzie, Jason Reese

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17 Citations (Scopus)
208 Downloads (Pure)


There are some hydrodynamic equations that, while their parent kinetic equation satisfies fundamental mechanical properties, appear themselves to violate mechanical or thermodynamic properties. This article aims to shed some light on the source of this problem. Starting with diffusive volume hydrodynamic models, the microscopic temporal and spatial scales are first separated at the kinetic level from the macroscopic scales at the hydrodynamic level. Then we consider Klimontovich’s spatial stochastic version of the Boltzmann kinetic equation, and show that, for small local Knudsen numbers, the stochastic term vanishes and the kinetic equation becomes the Boltzmann equation. The collision integral dominates in the small local Knudsen number regime, which is associated with the exact traditional continuum limit. We find a sub-domain of the continuum range which the conventional Knudsen number classification does not account for appropriately. In this sub-domain, it is possible to obtain a fully mechanically-consistent volume (or mass) diffusion model that satisfies the second law of thermodynamics on the grounds of extended non-local-equilibrium thermodynamics.
Original languageEnglish
Article number041202
Number of pages7
JournalPhysical Review E
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 17 Apr 2012


  • Stochastic kinetic equatio n
  • Boltzmann equation
  • Rarefied Gas
  • Non-continuum flow
  • Volume and mass diffusion
  • Navier-Stokes equations


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