Analysis of multi-converter network impedance using MIMO stability criterion for multi-loop systems

Callum Henderson, Agusti Egea-Alvarez, Lie Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
75 Downloads (Pure)


This work presents a novel method of simplifying multi-converter systems containing complex grid-forming and grid-following controllers for stability analyses. Analysis is conducted via the equivalent converter output impedance. Important points for impedance-based stability analysis of larger networks are considered, including impedance rotations, proper combination of sources and correctly obtaining a minimum system realisation with appropriate tolerances. The proposed method is used to conduct a sensitivity analysis of different grid-forming and grid-following converter control parameters to determine tuning recommendations for the modern electricity network. To achieve this, complex control structures including power/voltage control, negative sequence regulation and synchronous machine emulation are included. Network stability is found to be sensitive to current control, active power control and frequency-based components such as PLLs. However, voltage control exhibits a smaller effect on stability for a range of short circuit ratios. Some recommendations are provided on when the simplified method can be utilised and how to ensure correct application.
Original languageEnglish
Article number108542
Number of pages8
JournalElectric Power Systems Research
Early online date14 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2022


  • multi-converter network
  • grid-forming converter
  • grid-following
  • impedance method
  • MIMO stability


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