Analysis of energy dissipation in resistive superconducting fault-current limiters for optimal power system performance

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Abstract

Fault levels in electrical distribution systems are rising due to the increasing presence of distributed generation, and this rising trend is expected to continue in the future. Superconducting fault-current limiters (SFCLs) are a promising solution to this problem. This paper describes the factors that govern the selection of optimal SFCL resistance. The total energy dissipated in an SFCL during a fault is particularly important for estimating the recovery time of the SFCL; the recovery time affects the design, planning, and operation of electrical systems using SFCLs to manage fault levels. Generic equations for energy dissipation are established in terms of fault duration, SFCL resistance, source impedance, source voltage, and fault inception angles. Furthermore, using an analysis that is independent of superconductor material, it is shown that the minimum required volume of superconductors linearly varies with SFCL resistance but, for a given level of fault-current limitation and power rating, is independent of system voltage and superconductor resistivity. Hence, there is a compromise between a shorter recovery time, which is desirable, and the cost of the volume of superconducting material needed for the resistance required to achieve the shorter recovery time.

LanguageEnglish
Pages3452 - 3457
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Volume21
Issue number4
Early online date10 May 2011
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011

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Superconducting fault current limiters
Energy dissipation
energy dissipation
Superconducting materials
recovery
Recovery
Electric fault currents
Distributed power generation
Electric potential
ratings
electric potential
planning
estimating
Planning
impedance
costs
trends
electrical resistivity

Keywords

  • energy dissipation
  • superconductors
  • superconductivity
  • fault analysis

Cite this

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title = "Analysis of energy dissipation in resistive superconducting fault-current limiters for optimal power system performance",
abstract = "Fault levels in electrical distribution systems are rising due to the increasing presence of distributed generation, and this rising trend is expected to continue in the future. Superconducting fault-current limiters (SFCLs) are a promising solution to this problem. This paper describes the factors that govern the selection of optimal SFCL resistance. The total energy dissipated in an SFCL during a fault is particularly important for estimating the recovery time of the SFCL; the recovery time affects the design, planning, and operation of electrical systems using SFCLs to manage fault levels. Generic equations for energy dissipation are established in terms of fault duration, SFCL resistance, source impedance, source voltage, and fault inception angles. Furthermore, using an analysis that is independent of superconductor material, it is shown that the minimum required volume of superconductors linearly varies with SFCL resistance but, for a given level of fault-current limitation and power rating, is independent of system voltage and superconductor resistivity. Hence, there is a compromise between a shorter recovery time, which is desirable, and the cost of the volume of superconducting material needed for the resistance required to achieve the shorter recovery time.",
keywords = "energy dissipation, superconductors, superconductivity, fault analysis",
author = "Blair, {Steven Macpherson} and Campbell Booth and Nand Singh and Graeme Burt and C.G. Bright",
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AU - Burt, Graeme

AU - Bright, C.G.

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N2 - Fault levels in electrical distribution systems are rising due to the increasing presence of distributed generation, and this rising trend is expected to continue in the future. Superconducting fault-current limiters (SFCLs) are a promising solution to this problem. This paper describes the factors that govern the selection of optimal SFCL resistance. The total energy dissipated in an SFCL during a fault is particularly important for estimating the recovery time of the SFCL; the recovery time affects the design, planning, and operation of electrical systems using SFCLs to manage fault levels. Generic equations for energy dissipation are established in terms of fault duration, SFCL resistance, source impedance, source voltage, and fault inception angles. Furthermore, using an analysis that is independent of superconductor material, it is shown that the minimum required volume of superconductors linearly varies with SFCL resistance but, for a given level of fault-current limitation and power rating, is independent of system voltage and superconductor resistivity. Hence, there is a compromise between a shorter recovery time, which is desirable, and the cost of the volume of superconducting material needed for the resistance required to achieve the shorter recovery time.

AB - Fault levels in electrical distribution systems are rising due to the increasing presence of distributed generation, and this rising trend is expected to continue in the future. Superconducting fault-current limiters (SFCLs) are a promising solution to this problem. This paper describes the factors that govern the selection of optimal SFCL resistance. The total energy dissipated in an SFCL during a fault is particularly important for estimating the recovery time of the SFCL; the recovery time affects the design, planning, and operation of electrical systems using SFCLs to manage fault levels. Generic equations for energy dissipation are established in terms of fault duration, SFCL resistance, source impedance, source voltage, and fault inception angles. Furthermore, using an analysis that is independent of superconductor material, it is shown that the minimum required volume of superconductors linearly varies with SFCL resistance but, for a given level of fault-current limitation and power rating, is independent of system voltage and superconductor resistivity. Hence, there is a compromise between a shorter recovery time, which is desirable, and the cost of the volume of superconducting material needed for the resistance required to achieve the shorter recovery time.

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KW - superconductors

KW - superconductivity

KW - fault analysis

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