Analysis of 3D prints by X-ray computed microtomography and terahertz pulsed imaging

Daniel Markl, J. Axel Zeitler, Cecilie Rasch, Maria Høtoft Michaelsen, Anette Müllertz, Jukka Rantanen, Thomas Rades, Johan Bøtker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: A 3D printer was used to realise compartmental dosage forms containing multiple active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) formulations. This work demonstrates the microstructural characterisation of 3D printed solid dosage forms using X-ray computed microtomography (XμCT) and terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Methods: Printing was performed with either polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polylactic acid (PLA). The structures were examined by XμCT and TPI. Liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) formulations containing saquinavir and halofantrine were incorporated into the 3D printed compartmentalised structures and in vitro drug release determined. Results: A clear difference in terms of pore structure between PVA and PLA prints was observed by extracting the porosity (5.5% for PVA and 0.2% for PLA prints), pore length and pore volume from the XμCT data. The print resolution and accuracy was characterised by XμCT and TPI on the basis of the computer-aided design (CAD) models of the dosage form (compartmentalised PVA structures were 7.5 ± 0.75% larger than designed; n = 3). Conclusions: The 3D printer can reproduce specific structures very accurately, whereas the 3D prints can deviate from the designed model. The microstructural information extracted by XμCT and TPI will assist to gain a better understanding about the performance of 3D printed dosage forms.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1037-1052
Number of pages16
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Volume34
Issue number5
Early online date21 Dec 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017

Fingerprint

Terahertz Imaging
Polyvinyl Alcohol
X-Ray Microtomography
Dosage Forms
3D printers
Imaging techniques
X rays
Saquinavir
Computer-Aided Design
Drug Compounding
Printing
Porosity
Drug Delivery Systems
Pore structure
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Computer aided design
Liquids
poly(lactic acid)

Keywords

  • 3D printing
  • microstructure
  • polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)
  • terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI)
  • X-ray computed microtomography (XμCT)

Cite this

Markl, D., Zeitler, J. A., Rasch, C., Michaelsen, M. H., Müllertz, A., Rantanen, J., ... Bøtker, J. (2017). Analysis of 3D prints by X-ray computed microtomography and terahertz pulsed imaging. Pharmaceutical Research, 34(5), 1037-1052. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-016-2083-1
Markl, Daniel ; Zeitler, J. Axel ; Rasch, Cecilie ; Michaelsen, Maria Høtoft ; Müllertz, Anette ; Rantanen, Jukka ; Rades, Thomas ; Bøtker, Johan. / Analysis of 3D prints by X-ray computed microtomography and terahertz pulsed imaging. In: Pharmaceutical Research. 2017 ; Vol. 34, No. 5. pp. 1037-1052.
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Markl, D, Zeitler, JA, Rasch, C, Michaelsen, MH, Müllertz, A, Rantanen, J, Rades, T & Bøtker, J 2017, 'Analysis of 3D prints by X-ray computed microtomography and terahertz pulsed imaging' Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1037-1052. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-016-2083-1

Analysis of 3D prints by X-ray computed microtomography and terahertz pulsed imaging. / Markl, Daniel; Zeitler, J. Axel; Rasch, Cecilie; Michaelsen, Maria Høtoft; Müllertz, Anette; Rantanen, Jukka; Rades, Thomas; Bøtker, Johan.

In: Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 34, No. 5, 01.05.2017, p. 1037-1052.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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