An investigation into the immunogenicity of a GnRH analogue in male rats: a comparison of the toxicity of various adjuvants used in conjunction with GnRH-glycys

V. A. Ferro, J E O'Grady, J Notman, W H Stimson

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11 Citations (Scopus)


Immunization of male Copenhagen Fischer rats with a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue, conjugated to PPD resulted in high levels of antibody being produced which disrupted gonadal function in male rats. The antibody reduced serum testosterone levels and subsequently suppressed spermatogenesis. Alternatives to Freund's adjuvant were tested, namely, aluminium hydroxide and non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV). The study showed that aluminium hydroxide was as effective as Freund's adjuvant and less toxic, in both BCG and non-BCG primed animals. However, NISV were completely non-toxic and most effective in conjunction with BCG priming. The data obtained showed that NISV have the potential to be used as an alternative to FCA and aluminium hydroxide-based adjuvants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)451-457
Number of pages7
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 1996


  • adjuvants, immunologic
  • amino acid sequence
  • animals
  • antibodies
  • body weight
  • gonadotropin-releasing hormone
  • immunization
  • male
  • molecular sequence data
  • rats
  • rats, inbred F344
  • testosterone
  • tuberculin
  • comparative study

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