An improved lead-acid battery pack model for use in power simulations of electric vehicles

R. Carter, A. Cruden, P. J. Hall, A. S. Zaher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)


A new model for a lead-acid battery pack is proposed for use in power simulations of electric vehicles. A linear approximation using a constant voltage drop has been used to model the charge-transfer resistance of the battery pack, and an exponential voltage-recovery equation has been used to model the transient capacitance effects following a period of discharge. The new model is easy to implement with simple calculations and easily acquired parameters, combining speed of implementation with accuracy. The new model was found to have a peak error of 3.1% in drive cycle tests, thus comparing favorably to existing models of similar complexity. An initial assessment of the model's suitability for use with a lithium-ion battery pack was also performed, finding a peak error of 5%.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-28
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012



  • lead-acid batteries
  • electric vehicles (EVs)
  • modeling
  • adviser
  • lead-acid battery pack model
  • power simulations
  • batteries
  • voltage measurement
  • system-on-a-chip
  • resistance
  • mathematical model
  • lead
  • integrated circuit modeling

Cite this