This paper describes the development of an implicit finite difference method for solving transient three-dimensional incompressible free surface flows. To reduce the CPU time of explicit low-Reynolds number calculations, we have combined a projection method with an implicit technique for treating the pressure on the free surface. The projection method is employed to uncouple the velocity and the pressure fields, allowing each variable to be solved separately. We employ the normal stress condition on the free surface to derive an implicit technique for calculating the pressure at the free surface. Numerical results demonstrate that this modification is essential for the construction of methods that are more stable than those provided by discretizing the free surface explicitly. In addition, we show that the proposed method can be applied to viscoelastic fluids. Numerical results include the simulation of jet buckling and extrudate swell for Reynolds numbers in the range [0.01, 0.5].
- implicit techniques
- three-dimensional free surface flows
- viscoelastic fluids
- finite differences
- jet buckling
- extrudate swell
Oishi, C. M., Tome, M. F., Cuminato, J. A., & McKee, S. (2008). An implicit technique for solving 3D low Reynolds number moving free surface flows. Journal of Computational Physics, 227(16), 7446-7468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2008.04.017