An imaging-based autorefractor

Matteo Menolotto, Iain A.T. Livingstone, Mario E. Giardini

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book

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Autorefraction consists of the automatic sensing of three parameters - spherical error, cylindrical error, slope of the principal meridian - that describe the deviation of the focusing properties of an ametropic eye with respect to an emmetropic state. Low-cost autorefractors would be highly desirable in resource-poor settings for the stratification of patients between those who can be treated in the community and those who need to be referred to specialist care. In the present paper, we describe the implementation of an autorefractor based on projecting patterns onto the retina of an eye and observing the projected pattern through an ophthalmoscopic camera configuration coaxial with the projection path. Tunable optics in the coaxial path, combined with appropriate image processing, allows determination of the three parameters. The simplicity and performance of the setup, measured on an eye simulator, shows promise towards clinical use in the community. Further work is needed to confirm the performance in vivo.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2021 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC)
Place of PublicationPiscataway, NJ.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9781728195407
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jun 2021
EventI2MTC 2021 - University of Strathclyde, Technology and Innovation Centre
Duration: 17 May 202121 May 2021


ConferenceI2MTC 2021
Internet address


  • refraction
  • vision tests
  • vision screening
  • optometry
  • community eye care
  • ophthalmoscopy


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