An experimental investigation of the combustion performance of human faeces

Tosin Somorin, Athanasios J. Kolios, Kumar Patchigolla, Stuart T. Wagland, Beatriz Fidalgo, Nelia Jurado, Dawid P. Hanak, Vasilije Manovic, Alison Parker, Ewan McAdam, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel, Elise Cartmell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Poor sanitation is one of the major hindrances to the global sustainable development goals. The Reinvent the Toilet Challenge of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is set to develop affordable, next-generation sanitary systems that can ensure safe treatment and wide accessibility without compromise on sustainable use of natural resources and the environment. Energy recovery from human excreta is likely to be a cornerstone of future sustainable sanitary systems. Faeces combustion was investigated using a bench-scale downdraft combustor test rig, alongside with wood biomass and simulant faeces. Parameters such as air flow rate, fuel pellet size, bed height, and fuel ignition mode were varied to establish the combustion operating range of the test rig and the optimum conditions for converting the faecal biomass to energy. The experimental results show that the dry human faeces had a higher energy content (∼25 MJ/kg) than wood biomass. At equivalence ratio between 0.86 and 1.12, the combustion temperature and fuel burn rate ranged from 431 to 558 °C and 1.53 to 2.30 g/min respectively. Preliminary results for the simulant faeces show that a minimum combustion bed temperature of 600 ± 10 °C can handle faeces up to 60 wt.% moisture at optimum air-to-fuel ratio. Further investigation is required to establish the appropriate trade-off limits for drying and energy recovery, considering different stool types, moisture content and drying characteristics. This is important for the design and further development of a self-sustained energy conversion and recovery systems for the NMT and similar sanitary solutions.

LanguageEnglish
Pages780-791
Number of pages12
JournalFuel
Volume184
Early online date27 Jul 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2016

Fingerprint

Biomass
Recovery
Wood
Drying
Moisture
Sanitation
Natural resources
Air
Combustors
Energy conversion
Ignition
Sustainable development
Flow rate
Temperature

Keywords

  • combustion
  • faecal biomass
  • nano membrane toilet
  • non-sewered sanitary systems
  • smouldering

Cite this

Somorin, T., Kolios, A. J., Patchigolla, K., Wagland, S. T., Fidalgo, B., Jurado, N., ... Cartmell, E. (2016). An experimental investigation of the combustion performance of human faeces. Fuel, 184, 780-791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.07.077
Somorin, Tosin ; Kolios, Athanasios J. ; Patchigolla, Kumar ; Wagland, Stuart T. ; Fidalgo, Beatriz ; Jurado, Nelia ; Hanak, Dawid P. ; Manovic, Vasilije ; Parker, Alison ; McAdam, Ewan ; Williams, Leon ; Tyrrel, Sean ; Cartmell, Elise. / An experimental investigation of the combustion performance of human faeces. In: Fuel. 2016 ; Vol. 184. pp. 780-791.
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title = "An experimental investigation of the combustion performance of human faeces",
abstract = "Poor sanitation is one of the major hindrances to the global sustainable development goals. The Reinvent the Toilet Challenge of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is set to develop affordable, next-generation sanitary systems that can ensure safe treatment and wide accessibility without compromise on sustainable use of natural resources and the environment. Energy recovery from human excreta is likely to be a cornerstone of future sustainable sanitary systems. Faeces combustion was investigated using a bench-scale downdraft combustor test rig, alongside with wood biomass and simulant faeces. Parameters such as air flow rate, fuel pellet size, bed height, and fuel ignition mode were varied to establish the combustion operating range of the test rig and the optimum conditions for converting the faecal biomass to energy. The experimental results show that the dry human faeces had a higher energy content (∼25 MJ/kg) than wood biomass. At equivalence ratio between 0.86 and 1.12, the combustion temperature and fuel burn rate ranged from 431 to 558 °C and 1.53 to 2.30 g/min respectively. Preliminary results for the simulant faeces show that a minimum combustion bed temperature of 600 ± 10 °C can handle faeces up to 60 wt.{\%} moisture at optimum air-to-fuel ratio. Further investigation is required to establish the appropriate trade-off limits for drying and energy recovery, considering different stool types, moisture content and drying characteristics. This is important for the design and further development of a self-sustained energy conversion and recovery systems for the NMT and similar sanitary solutions.",
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author = "Tosin Somorin and Kolios, {Athanasios J.} and Kumar Patchigolla and Wagland, {Stuart T.} and Beatriz Fidalgo and Nelia Jurado and Hanak, {Dawid P.} and Vasilije Manovic and Alison Parker and Ewan McAdam and Leon Williams and Sean Tyrrel and Elise Cartmell",
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Somorin, T, Kolios, AJ, Patchigolla, K, Wagland, ST, Fidalgo, B, Jurado, N, Hanak, DP, Manovic, V, Parker, A, McAdam, E, Williams, L, Tyrrel, S & Cartmell, E 2016, 'An experimental investigation of the combustion performance of human faeces' Fuel, vol. 184, pp. 780-791. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.07.077

An experimental investigation of the combustion performance of human faeces. / Somorin, Tosin; Kolios, Athanasios J.; Patchigolla, Kumar; Wagland, Stuart T.; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Jurado, Nelia; Hanak, Dawid P.; Manovic, Vasilije; Parker, Alison; McAdam, Ewan; Williams, Leon; Tyrrel, Sean; Cartmell, Elise.

In: Fuel, Vol. 184, 15.11.2016, p. 780-791.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - An experimental investigation of the combustion performance of human faeces

AU - Somorin, Tosin

AU - Kolios, Athanasios J.

AU - Patchigolla, Kumar

AU - Wagland, Stuart T.

AU - Fidalgo, Beatriz

AU - Jurado, Nelia

AU - Hanak, Dawid P.

AU - Manovic, Vasilije

AU - Parker, Alison

AU - McAdam, Ewan

AU - Williams, Leon

AU - Tyrrel, Sean

AU - Cartmell, Elise

PY - 2016/11/15

Y1 - 2016/11/15

N2 - Poor sanitation is one of the major hindrances to the global sustainable development goals. The Reinvent the Toilet Challenge of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is set to develop affordable, next-generation sanitary systems that can ensure safe treatment and wide accessibility without compromise on sustainable use of natural resources and the environment. Energy recovery from human excreta is likely to be a cornerstone of future sustainable sanitary systems. Faeces combustion was investigated using a bench-scale downdraft combustor test rig, alongside with wood biomass and simulant faeces. Parameters such as air flow rate, fuel pellet size, bed height, and fuel ignition mode were varied to establish the combustion operating range of the test rig and the optimum conditions for converting the faecal biomass to energy. The experimental results show that the dry human faeces had a higher energy content (∼25 MJ/kg) than wood biomass. At equivalence ratio between 0.86 and 1.12, the combustion temperature and fuel burn rate ranged from 431 to 558 °C and 1.53 to 2.30 g/min respectively. Preliminary results for the simulant faeces show that a minimum combustion bed temperature of 600 ± 10 °C can handle faeces up to 60 wt.% moisture at optimum air-to-fuel ratio. Further investigation is required to establish the appropriate trade-off limits for drying and energy recovery, considering different stool types, moisture content and drying characteristics. This is important for the design and further development of a self-sustained energy conversion and recovery systems for the NMT and similar sanitary solutions.

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KW - combustion

KW - faecal biomass

KW - nano membrane toilet

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