### Abstract

In this paper we focus on high order finite element approximations of the electric field combined with suitable preconditioners, to solve the time-harmonic Maxwell's equations in waveguide configurations.The implementation of high order curl-conforming finite elements is quite delicate, especially in the three-dimensional case. Here, we explicitly describe an implementation strategy, which has been embedded in the open source finite element software FreeFem++ (http://www.freefem.org/ff++/). In particular, we use the inverse of a generalized Vandermonde matrix to build basis functions in duality with the degrees of freedom, resulting in an easy-to-use but powerful interpolation operator. We carefully address the problem of applying the same Vandermonde matrix to possibly differently oriented tetrahedra of the mesh over the computational domain. We investigate the preconditioning for Maxwell's equations in the time-harmonic regime, which is an underdeveloped issue in the literature, particularly for high order discretizations. In the numerical experiments, we study the effect of varying several parameters on the spectrum of the matrix preconditioned with overlapping Schwarz methods, both for 2d and 3d waveguide configurations.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 1498-1514 |

Number of pages | 17 |

Journal | Computers and Mathematics with Applications |

Volume | 75 |

Early online date | 6 Dec 2017 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 1 Mar 2018 |

### Keywords

- high order finite elements
- edge elements
- Schwarz preconditioners
- time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations
- FreeFem++

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## Cite this

Bonazzoli, M., Dolean, V., Hecht, F., & Rapetti, F. (2018). An example of explicit implementation strategy and preconditioning for the high order edge finite elements applied to the time-harmonic Maxwell's equations.

*Computers and Mathematics with Applications*,*75*, 1498-1514. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.camwa.2017.11.013