Optimization and broadening of the technological regimes of superplastic forming require more accurate accounting of the transformation of microstructure during all stages of the forming process. On the one hand, it is very important to predict the resultant microstructure in different parts of the formed structure as it determines the operation properties, and on the other hand, active transformation of microstructure can lead to either hardening (grain coarsening) or softening (grain refinement) of the material. These changes in the mechanical behavior of a material can be quite significant and need to be taken into account in the FEM simulation of superplastic forming processes to achieve the required accuracy. One approach for modeling the microstructural transformation in an FEM simulation for a two-phase alloy is proposed herein. Constitutive model with internal variables is described. The questions of validity of macroscopic and microscopic equations are discussed. The approach for taking into account the transformation of metallographic texture is proposed.
- constitutive modeling
- FEM simulation
- microstructure transformation