An analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in metallic pipe structures using finite element modelling techniques

A. Gachagan, P. Reynolds, A. McNab

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper describes the development of a large finite element (FE) model representing ultrasonic inspection in a metallic pipe. The model was developed using PZFlex and comprises two wedge transducer components, water coupled onto the inner wall of a 36 inch diameter steel pipe. The 2MHz transducers are
separated by 430mm and configured to generate/receive ultrasonic shear waves. One device is used in pulse-echo mode to analyse any reflected components within the system, with the second transducer operating in a
passive mode. Importantly, to minimise the models computational requirements, an external pressure loading function was applied to the wedge component within the model to simulate the transducer excitation. A number of simple defect representations have been incorporated into the model and both the
reflected and transmitted ultrasonic wave components acquired at each wedge. Both regular slot and lamination defects have been investigated, at three different locations to evaluate the relationship between propagation path length and defect response. These defect responses are analysed in both the time and
frequency domains and good correlation with experimentally measured waveforms is demonstrated. Moreover, the FE modelling has produced visual interpretation, in the form of a movie simulation, of the interaction between the propagating pressure wave and the defect. A combination of these visual aids and the predicted temporal/spectral waveforms has clearly demonstrated the essential differences in the response from either a slot or lamination defect. It should be noted that these modelled representations correspond to a propagation path length in excess of 150 wavelengths. Consequently, it was necessary to incorporate denser meshing within the FE model and run the simulations on a multi-processor SGI computer facility to produce
accurate results.

Conference

Conference16th WCNDT 2004 - World Conference on NDT
CountryCanada
CityMontreal
Period30/08/043/09/04

Fingerprint

ultrasonic radiation
wave propagation
defects
transducers
wedges
slots
laminates
waveforms
visual aids
ultrasonics
propagation
elastic waves
S waves
central processing units
inspection
echoes
simulation
steels
requirements
pulses

Keywords

  • analysis
  • ultrasonic
  • wave propagation
  • metallic pipe structures
  • finite element modelling techniques

Cite this

Gachagan, A., Reynolds, P., & McNab, A. (2004). An analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in metallic pipe structures using finite element modelling techniques. Paper presented at 16th WCNDT 2004 - World Conference on NDT, Montreal, Canada.
Gachagan, A. ; Reynolds, P. ; McNab, A. / An analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in metallic pipe structures using finite element modelling techniques. Paper presented at 16th WCNDT 2004 - World Conference on NDT, Montreal, Canada.
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Gachagan, A, Reynolds, P & McNab, A 2004, 'An analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in metallic pipe structures using finite element modelling techniques' Paper presented at 16th WCNDT 2004 - World Conference on NDT, Montreal, Canada, 30/08/04 - 3/09/04, .

An analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in metallic pipe structures using finite element modelling techniques. / Gachagan, A.; Reynolds, P.; McNab, A.

2004. Paper presented at 16th WCNDT 2004 - World Conference on NDT, Montreal, Canada.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

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AU - McNab, A.

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N2 - This paper describes the development of a large finite element (FE) model representing ultrasonic inspection in a metallic pipe. The model was developed using PZFlex and comprises two wedge transducer components, water coupled onto the inner wall of a 36 inch diameter steel pipe. The 2MHz transducers are separated by 430mm and configured to generate/receive ultrasonic shear waves. One device is used in pulse-echo mode to analyse any reflected components within the system, with the second transducer operating in a passive mode. Importantly, to minimise the models computational requirements, an external pressure loading function was applied to the wedge component within the model to simulate the transducer excitation. A number of simple defect representations have been incorporated into the model and both the reflected and transmitted ultrasonic wave components acquired at each wedge. Both regular slot and lamination defects have been investigated, at three different locations to evaluate the relationship between propagation path length and defect response. These defect responses are analysed in both the time and frequency domains and good correlation with experimentally measured waveforms is demonstrated. Moreover, the FE modelling has produced visual interpretation, in the form of a movie simulation, of the interaction between the propagating pressure wave and the defect. A combination of these visual aids and the predicted temporal/spectral waveforms has clearly demonstrated the essential differences in the response from either a slot or lamination defect. It should be noted that these modelled representations correspond to a propagation path length in excess of 150 wavelengths. Consequently, it was necessary to incorporate denser meshing within the FE model and run the simulations on a multi-processor SGI computer facility to produce accurate results.

AB - This paper describes the development of a large finite element (FE) model representing ultrasonic inspection in a metallic pipe. The model was developed using PZFlex and comprises two wedge transducer components, water coupled onto the inner wall of a 36 inch diameter steel pipe. The 2MHz transducers are separated by 430mm and configured to generate/receive ultrasonic shear waves. One device is used in pulse-echo mode to analyse any reflected components within the system, with the second transducer operating in a passive mode. Importantly, to minimise the models computational requirements, an external pressure loading function was applied to the wedge component within the model to simulate the transducer excitation. A number of simple defect representations have been incorporated into the model and both the reflected and transmitted ultrasonic wave components acquired at each wedge. Both regular slot and lamination defects have been investigated, at three different locations to evaluate the relationship between propagation path length and defect response. These defect responses are analysed in both the time and frequency domains and good correlation with experimentally measured waveforms is demonstrated. Moreover, the FE modelling has produced visual interpretation, in the form of a movie simulation, of the interaction between the propagating pressure wave and the defect. A combination of these visual aids and the predicted temporal/spectral waveforms has clearly demonstrated the essential differences in the response from either a slot or lamination defect. It should be noted that these modelled representations correspond to a propagation path length in excess of 150 wavelengths. Consequently, it was necessary to incorporate denser meshing within the FE model and run the simulations on a multi-processor SGI computer facility to produce accurate results.

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KW - wave propagation

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Gachagan A, Reynolds P, McNab A. An analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in metallic pipe structures using finite element modelling techniques. 2004. Paper presented at 16th WCNDT 2004 - World Conference on NDT, Montreal, Canada.