Ammodytoxin A, the presynaptic neurotoxin from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom, was found to bind specifically and with high affinity to bovine cortex synaptic membrane preparation. The detected ammodytoxin A high-affinity binding was characterized by equilibrium binding analysis which revealed a single high-affinity binding site with Kd 4.13 nM and Bmax 6.67 pmoles/mg of membrane protein. 125I-ammodytoxin A was covalently cross-linked to its neuronal acceptor using a chemical cross-linking technique. As revealed by subsequent SDS-PAGE analysis and autoradiography, 125I-ammodytoxin A specifically attached to membrane components with apparent mol. wts 53,000-56,000. Besides by the native ammodytoxin A, the binding of radioiodinated ammodytoxin A to the neuronal acceptor was highly attenuated, also by other two iso-neurotoxins from V. a. ammodytes venom, ammodytoxins B and C, and neurotoxin crotoxin B from the venom of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus). Vipera berus berus phospholipase A2 was a weaker inhibitor, whereas nontoxic phospholipase A2, ammodytoxin I2 and myotoxic phospholipase A2 homologue, ammodytin L, both from V. a. ammodytes venom as well, were very weak inhibitors. No inhibitory effect on 125I-ammodytoxin A specific binding at all was, however, obtained with α-dendrotoxin, β-bungarotoxin and crotoxin A, respectively. Treatment of synaptic membranes with proteinase K and Staphylococcus aureus V-8 proteinase, a combination of PNGase F and neuroaminidase, heat or acid lowered the 125I-ammodytoxin A specific binding to various extents but never completely abolished it. The ammodytoxin A binding site in bovine synaptic membranes is thus most likely a combination of membrane glycoprotein acceptor and membrane phospholipids. As ammodytoxin A reduced the second negative component of the perineural waveform, measured on mouse triangularis sterni preparation, which is very likely a result of an inhibition of a fraction of the terminal K+ currents, the ammodytoxin A acceptor could well be connected with K+ channels.
- snake venom
- phospholipases A2
- neuromuscular blocking action
- motor nerve terminals