Aggregated energy storage for power system frequency control: a finite-time consensus approach

Yu Wang, Yan Xu, Yi Tang, Kai Liao, Mazheruddin H. Syed, Efren Guillo Sansano, Graeme Burt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Citations (Scopus)
153 Downloads (Pure)


In future power systems, widespread small-scale energy storage systems (ESSs) can be aggregated to provide ancillary services. In this context, this paper aims to integrate energy storage aggregators (ESAs) into the load frequency control (LFC) framework for power system frequency control. Firstly, a system disturbance observer is designed to supplement the secondary frequency control, where the ESA can respond to the estimated disturbance and accelerate the system frequency recovery. Then, within the ESA, a finite-time leader-follower consensus algorithm is proposed to control the small-scale ESSs via sparse communication network. This algorithm ensures that the ESAs can track the frequency control signals and the state-of-charge balancing among each ESS in finite-time. The external characteristics of the ESA will resemble to that of one large-scale ESS. Numerical examples demonstrate the convergence of the ESA under different communication graphs. The effectiveness of the entire framework for power system frequency control is validated under a variety of scenarios.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Early online date8 May 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 8 May 2018


  • frequency control
  • consensus algorithm
  • energy storage systems
  • aggregator
  • demand response


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