Age-specific vaccine effectiveness of seasonal 2010/2011 and pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in preventing influenza in the United Kingdom

R.G. Pebody, Nick Andrews, D.M. Fleming, J. McMenamin, S. Cottrell, B. Smyth, H. Durnall, Chris Robertson, W. Carman, J. Ellis, P. Sebastian-Pillai, Maria Zambon, C. Hearns, C. Moore, D.R. Thomas, J.M. Watson

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An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42–66); age-specific
adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45–97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27–97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI x6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15–91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42–68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32–91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)620-630
Number of pages11
JournalEpidemiology and Infection
Issue number3
Early online date13 Jun 2012
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013


  • Influenza
  • vaccine-preventable diseases
  • influenza vaccines
  • age-specific
  • vaccine effectiveness
  • pandemic

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