Africans' surprising universalism

Michael Bratton, Robert Mattes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


Africa is a latecomer to democratization. In terms of timing, Africa has followed rather than led other continents in giving birth to the reform movements that have installed elected governments, multiparty systems, and more open societies around the world. Since many African countries are dependent on foreign aid, they have also experienced weighty external pressures to liberalize. One should not automatically conclude, however, that the impetus for reform comes from outside the continent rather than from within.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-121
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Democracy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2001


  • South Africa
  • universalism
  • liberalization


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  • Afrobarometer

    Mattes, R., Gyimah-Boadi, E., Bratton, M., Logan, C., Dulani, B. & Mitullah, W.

    14/09/98 → …

    Project: Research

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