Advances in laser sources for confocal and multiphoton microscopy

J.M. Girkin, G. McConnell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


The illumination source for all high-resolution, optical sectioning, scanning microscopes is crucially important to the overall performance of the system. We examine advances that have been made in laser sources for both confocal and multiphoton microscopy where the emphasis has been on the development of potentially low-cost, easy to use sources. Growing interest in temporally and spatially resolved techniques has directed laser research towards addressing these challenges. We present the most recent developments in sources for confocal and multiphoton microscopy along with the considerations that should be made when a new source is being considered.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-14
Number of pages6
JournalMicroscopy Research and Technique
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - May 2005


  • confocal microscopy
  • multiphoton microscopy
  • lasers


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