Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS microscopy

A.J. Wright, S.P. Poland, J.M. Girkin, C.W. Freudiger, C.L. Evans, X.S. Xie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Citations (Scopus)


We report the use of adaptive optics with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for label-free deep tissue imaging based on molecular vibrational spectroscopy. The setup employs a deformable membrane mirror and a random search optimization algorithm to improve signal intensity and image quality at large sample depths. We demonstrate the ability to correct for both system and sample-induced aberrations in test samples as well as in muscle tissue in order to enhance the CARS signal. The combined system and sample-induced aberration correction increased the signal by an average factor of ~3x for the test samples at a depth of 700 μm and ~6x for muscle tissue at a depth of 260μm. The enhanced signal and higher penetration depth offered by adaptive optics will augment CARS microscopy as an in vivo and in situ biomedical imaging modality.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18209-18219
Number of pages10
JournalOptics Express
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - 19 Dec 2007


  • medical and biological imaging
  • non linear microscopy
  • aberration correction
  • active or adaptive optics
  • spectroscopy
  • coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering


Dive into the research topics of 'Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS microscopy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this