Future power systems control will require large-scale activation of reserves at distribution level. Despite their high potential, distributed energy resources (DER) used for frequency control pose challenges due to unpredictability, grid bottlenecks, etc. To deal with these issues, this study presents a novel strategy of power frequency characteristic dynamic adjustment based on the imbalance state. This way, the concerned operators become aware of the imbalance location but also a more accurate redistribution of responsibilities in terms of reserves activations is achieved. The proposed control is based on the concept of “cells” which are power systems with operating capabilities and responsibilities similar to control areas (CAs), but fostering the use of resources at all voltage levels, particularly distribution grids. Control autonomy of cells allows increased RES hosting. In this study, the power frequency characteristic of a cell is adjusted in real time by means of a fuzzy controller, which curtails part of the reserves, in order to avoid unnecessary deployment throughout a synchronous area, leading to a more localised activation and reducing losses, congestions and reserves exhaustion. Simulation tests in a four-cell reference power system prove that the controller significantly reduces the use of reserves without compromising the overall stability.
- adaptive control
- fuzzy logic
- frequency containment control (FCC)
- power frequency characteristic
- droop control
Rikos, E., Caerts, C., Cabiati, M., Syed, M., & Burt, G. (2017). Adaptive fuzzy control for power-frequency characteristic regulation in high-RES power systems. Energies, 10(7), . https://doi.org/10.3390/en10070982