This paper concerns a study of pressure fluctuations beneath hypersonic transitional and turbulent boundary layers and associated acoustic loading on a flat surface. We have employed high-order implicit large eddy simulations in conjunction with the atmospheric (von Kármán) multimode energy spectrum as initial condition, and conducted simulations at Mach 4, 6 and 8 and for different inflow turbulence intensities. The spectral analysis of the pressure fluctuations shows consistent results with the available theoretical, experimental and numerical data for fully turbulent boundary layers. In the transition region the spectrum roll-off diverges from the existing scaling predictions for incompressible, as well as fully-turbulent compressible flows. This study shows that the spectrum in the transition region is governed by different scaling laws. The Mach number has a direct impact on the spectrum for both transitional and fully turbulent flows, especially in the high-frequency region of the spectrum. Increasing the inlet turbulence intensity leads to higher amplitude pressure fluctuations in the mid-to-high-frequency region, faster transition to turbulence, and higher acoustic loading on the solid surface.
- acoustic loading
- compressible flows