In recent years, it has become clear that reaching the targeted levels of renewable power generation poses problems, not only for basic infrastructure and generation/load balancing, but also in terms of fundamental network stability. In Ireland, the contribution from convertor-connected generation is already constrained to 50-55%, while recent studies of other networks suggest that any "penetration" of convertors above 65% could lead to instability. The phenomena have been observed both in RMS and high-fidelity EMT simulations of convertor-dominated power systems, and appears to be unavoidable when using the dq-axis current-source controllers within conventional grid-connected convertors. The high control bandwidth (>50 Hz) of these convertors also means that they cannot be effectively included within RMS type large-scale network models. The idea of "synthetic inertia" has been proposed in some publications as a mitigating solution but needs to be considered carefully, since if implemented incorrectly it has been shown to further destabilise the network at the critical small timescales and high frequencies. In this paper we present simple versions of a Virtual Synchronous Machine (VSM) model which is implemented and demonstrated in both transient and RMS based simulations. An important aspect of the VSM is that the controller’s bandwidth is low (<<50 Hz). This means that it can be modelled with reasonable accuracy in RMS simulation with time steps of the order of 2ms. From a system operator perspective, large-scale RMS simulations of entire countries or regions containing hundreds of VSM generators can be carried out with reasonable accuracy.
- NSG (non synchronous generation)
- virtual synchronous machine (VSM)
- converter control
- penetration level limit
- power system stability