A VSM (virtual synchronous machine) convertor control model suitable for RMS studies for resolving system operator/owner challenges

Andrew J Roscoe, Mengran Yu, Richard Ierna, Jiebei Zhu, Adam Dyśko, Helge Urdal, Campbell Booth

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

Abstract

In recent years, it has become clear that reaching the targeted levels of renewable power generation poses problems, not only for basic infrastructure and generation/load balancing, but also in terms of fundamental network stability. In Ireland, the contribution from convertor-connected generation is already constrained to 50-55%, while recent studies of other networks suggest that any "penetration" of convertors above 65% could lead to instability. The phenomena have been observed both in RMS and high-fidelity EMT simulations of convertor-dominated power systems, and appears to be unavoidable when using the dq-axis current-source controllers within conventional grid-connected convertors. The high control bandwidth (>50 Hz) of these convertors also means that they cannot be effectively included within RMS type large-scale network models. The idea of "synthetic inertia" has been proposed in some publications as a mitigating solution but needs to be considered carefully, since if implemented incorrectly it has been shown to further destabilise the network at the critical small timescales and high frequencies. In this paper we present simple versions of a Virtual Synchronous Machine (VSM) model which is implemented and demonstrated in both transient and RMS based simulations. An important aspect of the VSM is that the controller’s bandwidth is low (<<50 Hz). This means that it can be modelled with reasonable accuracy in RMS simulation with time steps of the order of 2ms. From a system operator perspective, large-scale RMS simulations of entire countries or regions containing hundreds of VSM generators can be carried out with reasonable accuracy.

Workshop

Workshop15th Wind Integration Workshop
CountryAustria
CityVienna
Period15/11/1617/11/16
Internet address

Fingerprint

Bandwidth
Controllers
Resource allocation
Power generation

Keywords

  • NSG (non synchronous generation)
  • virtual synchronous machine (VSM)
  • converter control
  • penetration level limit
  • power system stability

Cite this

Roscoe, A. J., Yu, M., Ierna, R., Zhu, J., Dyśko, A., Urdal, H., & Booth, C. (2016). A VSM (virtual synchronous machine) convertor control model suitable for RMS studies for resolving system operator/owner challenges. Paper presented at 15th Wind Integration Workshop, Vienna, Austria.
Roscoe, Andrew J ; Yu, Mengran ; Ierna, Richard ; Zhu, Jiebei ; Dyśko, Adam ; Urdal, Helge ; Booth, Campbell. / A VSM (virtual synchronous machine) convertor control model suitable for RMS studies for resolving system operator/owner challenges. Paper presented at 15th Wind Integration Workshop, Vienna, Austria.8 p.
@conference{5322450c8a6145d4a75e9eceeb388767,
title = "A VSM (virtual synchronous machine) convertor control model suitable for RMS studies for resolving system operator/owner challenges",
abstract = "In recent years, it has become clear that reaching the targeted levels of renewable power generation poses problems, not only for basic infrastructure and generation/load balancing, but also in terms of fundamental network stability. In Ireland, the contribution from convertor-connected generation is already constrained to 50-55{\%}, while recent studies of other networks suggest that any {"}penetration{"} of convertors above 65{\%} could lead to instability. The phenomena have been observed both in RMS and high-fidelity EMT simulations of convertor-dominated power systems, and appears to be unavoidable when using the dq-axis current-source controllers within conventional grid-connected convertors. The high control bandwidth (>50 Hz) of these convertors also means that they cannot be effectively included within RMS type large-scale network models. The idea of {"}synthetic inertia{"} has been proposed in some publications as a mitigating solution but needs to be considered carefully, since if implemented incorrectly it has been shown to further destabilise the network at the critical small timescales and high frequencies. In this paper we present simple versions of a Virtual Synchronous Machine (VSM) model which is implemented and demonstrated in both transient and RMS based simulations. An important aspect of the VSM is that the controller’s bandwidth is low (<<50 Hz). This means that it can be modelled with reasonable accuracy in RMS simulation with time steps of the order of 2ms. From a system operator perspective, large-scale RMS simulations of entire countries or regions containing hundreds of VSM generators can be carried out with reasonable accuracy.",
keywords = "NSG (non synchronous generation), virtual synchronous machine (VSM), converter control, penetration level limit, power system stability",
author = "Roscoe, {Andrew J} and Mengran Yu and Richard Ierna and Jiebei Zhu and Adam Dyśko and Helge Urdal and Campbell Booth",
note = "This paper was presented at the 15th Wind Integration Workshop and published in the workshop's proceedings. ; 15th Wind Integration Workshop ; Conference date: 15-11-2016 Through 17-11-2016",
year = "2016",
month = "11",
day = "15",
language = "English",
url = "http://windintegrationworkshop.org/vienna2016/",

}

Roscoe, AJ, Yu, M, Ierna, R, Zhu, J, Dyśko, A, Urdal, H & Booth, C 2016, 'A VSM (virtual synchronous machine) convertor control model suitable for RMS studies for resolving system operator/owner challenges' Paper presented at 15th Wind Integration Workshop, Vienna, Austria, 15/11/16 - 17/11/16, .

A VSM (virtual synchronous machine) convertor control model suitable for RMS studies for resolving system operator/owner challenges. / Roscoe, Andrew J; Yu, Mengran; Ierna, Richard; Zhu, Jiebei; Dyśko, Adam; Urdal, Helge; Booth, Campbell.

2016. Paper presented at 15th Wind Integration Workshop, Vienna, Austria.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - A VSM (virtual synchronous machine) convertor control model suitable for RMS studies for resolving system operator/owner challenges

AU - Roscoe, Andrew J

AU - Yu, Mengran

AU - Ierna, Richard

AU - Zhu, Jiebei

AU - Dyśko, Adam

AU - Urdal, Helge

AU - Booth, Campbell

N1 - This paper was presented at the 15th Wind Integration Workshop and published in the workshop's proceedings.

PY - 2016/11/15

Y1 - 2016/11/15

N2 - In recent years, it has become clear that reaching the targeted levels of renewable power generation poses problems, not only for basic infrastructure and generation/load balancing, but also in terms of fundamental network stability. In Ireland, the contribution from convertor-connected generation is already constrained to 50-55%, while recent studies of other networks suggest that any "penetration" of convertors above 65% could lead to instability. The phenomena have been observed both in RMS and high-fidelity EMT simulations of convertor-dominated power systems, and appears to be unavoidable when using the dq-axis current-source controllers within conventional grid-connected convertors. The high control bandwidth (>50 Hz) of these convertors also means that they cannot be effectively included within RMS type large-scale network models. The idea of "synthetic inertia" has been proposed in some publications as a mitigating solution but needs to be considered carefully, since if implemented incorrectly it has been shown to further destabilise the network at the critical small timescales and high frequencies. In this paper we present simple versions of a Virtual Synchronous Machine (VSM) model which is implemented and demonstrated in both transient and RMS based simulations. An important aspect of the VSM is that the controller’s bandwidth is low (<<50 Hz). This means that it can be modelled with reasonable accuracy in RMS simulation with time steps of the order of 2ms. From a system operator perspective, large-scale RMS simulations of entire countries or regions containing hundreds of VSM generators can be carried out with reasonable accuracy.

AB - In recent years, it has become clear that reaching the targeted levels of renewable power generation poses problems, not only for basic infrastructure and generation/load balancing, but also in terms of fundamental network stability. In Ireland, the contribution from convertor-connected generation is already constrained to 50-55%, while recent studies of other networks suggest that any "penetration" of convertors above 65% could lead to instability. The phenomena have been observed both in RMS and high-fidelity EMT simulations of convertor-dominated power systems, and appears to be unavoidable when using the dq-axis current-source controllers within conventional grid-connected convertors. The high control bandwidth (>50 Hz) of these convertors also means that they cannot be effectively included within RMS type large-scale network models. The idea of "synthetic inertia" has been proposed in some publications as a mitigating solution but needs to be considered carefully, since if implemented incorrectly it has been shown to further destabilise the network at the critical small timescales and high frequencies. In this paper we present simple versions of a Virtual Synchronous Machine (VSM) model which is implemented and demonstrated in both transient and RMS based simulations. An important aspect of the VSM is that the controller’s bandwidth is low (<<50 Hz). This means that it can be modelled with reasonable accuracy in RMS simulation with time steps of the order of 2ms. From a system operator perspective, large-scale RMS simulations of entire countries or regions containing hundreds of VSM generators can be carried out with reasonable accuracy.

KW - NSG (non synchronous generation)

KW - virtual synchronous machine (VSM)

KW - converter control

KW - penetration level limit

KW - power system stability

UR - http://windintegrationworkshop.org/vienna2016/

M3 - Paper

ER -

Roscoe AJ, Yu M, Ierna R, Zhu J, Dyśko A, Urdal H et al. A VSM (virtual synchronous machine) convertor control model suitable for RMS studies for resolving system operator/owner challenges. 2016. Paper presented at 15th Wind Integration Workshop, Vienna, Austria.