A systematic literature review on waste to resource potentials of palm oil clinker for sustainable engineering and environmental applications

Ahmad Hussaini Jagaba, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed Kutty, Gasim Hayder, Lavania Baloo, Azmatullah Noor, Nura Shehu Aliyu Yaro, Anwar Ameen Hezam Saeed, Ibrahim Mohammed Lawal, Abdullahi Haruna Birniwa, Abdullahi Usman Kilaco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Several agro-waste materials have utilized for sustainable engineering and environmental application over the past decades, showing different degrees of effectiveness. However, information concerning the wider use of palm oil clinker (POC) and its performance is still lacking. Therefore, as a solid waste by-product produced in one of the oil palm processing stages and generating huge quantity of waste mostly dumped into the landfill, the waste to resource potentials of POC would be greatly discussed in the review. This article thus, presents a systematic literature review of existing research articles on the various advances made between 2005-2021 about palm oil clinker physical properties, and performances with specific focus on their contributions in cost saving during environmental and engineering applications. The review began with identifying the potentials of POC application in conventional and geopolymer structural elements such as beams, slabs, columns made of either concrete, mortar or paste for coarse aggregates, sand and cement replacement. Aspects such as performance of POC in wastewater treatment processes, fine aggregate and cement replacement in asphaltic and bituminous mixtures during highway construction, a bio-filler in coatings for steel manufacturing processes and a catalyst during energy generation would also be discussed. The review further described the effectiveness of POC in soil stabilization and the effect of POC pretreatment for performance enhancement. The present review would inspire researchers to find research gaps that will aid the sustainable use of agroindustry wastes. The fundamental knowledge contained in the review could also serve as a wake-up call for researchers that will motivate them to explore the high potential of utilizing POC for greater environmental benefits associated with less cost when compared with conventional materials.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages32
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 20 Jul 2021


  • palm oil clinker
  • palm oil mill
  • engineering application
  • environmental management
  • waste utilization
  • systematic literature review


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