A systematic literature review on waste-to-resource potential of palm oil clinker for sustainable engineering and environmental applications

Ahmad Hussaini Jagaba, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed Kutty, Gasim Hayder, Lavania Baloo, Azmatullah Noor, Nura Shehu Aliyu Yaro, Anwar Ameen Hezam Saeed, Ibrahim Mohammed Lawal, Abdullahi Haruna Birniwa, Abdullahi Usman Kilaco

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)
21 Downloads (Pure)


Several agro-waste materials have been utilized for sustainable engineering and environmental application over the past decades, showing different degrees of effectiveness. However, information concerning the wider use of palm oil clinker (POC) and its performance is still lacking. Therefore, as a solid waste byproduct produced in one of the oil palm processing stages, generating a huge quantity of waste mostly dumped into the landfill, the waste-to-resource potential of POC should be thoroughly discussed in a review. Thus, this paper provides a systematic review of the current research articles on the several advances made from 2005 to 2021 regarding palm oil clinker physical properties and performances, with a particular emphasis on their commitments to cost savings during environmental and engineering applications. The review begins by identifying the potential of POC application in conventional and geopolymer structural elements such as beams, slabs, and columns made of concrete, mortar, or paste for coarse aggregates, sand, and cement replacement. Aspects such as performance of POC in wastewater treatment processes, fine aggregate and cement replacement in asphaltic and bituminous mixtures during highway construction, a bio-filler in coatings for steel manufacturing processes, and a catalyst during energy generation are also discussed. This review further describes the effectiveness of POC in soil stabilization and the effect of POC pretreatment for performance enhancement. The present review can inspire researchers to find research gaps that will aid the sustainable use of agroindustry wastes. The fundamental knowledge contained in this review can also serve as a wake-up call for researchers that will motivate them to explore the high potential of utilizing POC for greater environmental benefits associated with less cost when compared with conventional materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4456
Number of pages26
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2021


  • palm oil clinker
  • palm oil mill
  • engineering application
  • environmental management
  • waste utilization
  • systematic literature review


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