A space-based laser system for the deflection and manipulation of near Earth asteroids

Alison Gibbings, Massimiliano Vasile, John-Mark Hopkins, Alastair Wayman, Steven Eckersley, Ian A. Watson

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

Abstract

Abstract Analysis gained from a series of experiments has demonstrated the effectiveness of laser ablation for the low thrust, contactless deflection and manipulation of Near Earth Asteroids. In vacuum, a 90 W continuous wave laser beam has been used to ablate a magnesium-iron silicate sample (olivine). The laser operated at a wavelength of 808 nm and provided intensities that were below the threshold of plasma formation. Olivine was use to represent a rocky and solid asteroidal body. Assessed parameters included the average mass
flow rate, divergence, temperature and velocity of the ejecta plume, and the height, density and absorptivity of the deposited ejecta. Experimental data was used to verify an improved ablation model. The improved model combined the energy balance of sublimation with the energy absorption within the Knudsen layer, the variation of flow with local pressure, the temperature of the target material and the partial re-condensation of the ablated material. It also enabled the performance of a space-based laser system to be reassessed. The capability
of a moderately sized, conventional solar powered spacecraft was evaluated by its ability to deflect a small and irregular 4 m diameter asteroid by at least 1 m/s. Deflection had to be achieved with a total mission lifetime of three years. It was found to be an achievable and measurable objective. The laser (and its associated optical control) was designed using a simple combined beam expansion and focusing telescope. The mission study therefore verified the laser’s proof-of-concept, technology readiness and feasibility of its mission and
subsystem design. It also explored the additional opportunistic potential of the ablation process. The same technique can be used for the removal of space debris.

Conference

ConferenceInternational High Power Laser Ablation and Beamed Energy Propulsion Symposium, HPLA/BEP
CountryUnited States
CitySanta Fe, New Mexico
Period21/04/1425/06/14

Fingerprint

Asteroids
deflection
asteroid
laser
Earth (planet)
Olivine
Lasers
Ablation
ablation
ejecta
Space debris
Continuous wave lasers
Sublimation
olivine
Energy absorption
Laser ablation
Energy balance
Telescopes
Silicates
Laser beams

Keywords

  • asteroids
  • laser ablation
  • deflection
  • exploration
  • spacecraft
  • experiments

Cite this

Gibbings, A., Vasile, M., Hopkins, J-M., Wayman, A., Eckersley, S., & Watson, I. A. (2014). A space-based laser system for the deflection and manipulation of near Earth asteroids. Paper presented at International High Power Laser Ablation and Beamed Energy Propulsion Symposium, HPLA/BEP, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States.
Gibbings, Alison ; Vasile, Massimiliano ; Hopkins, John-Mark ; Wayman, Alastair ; Eckersley, Steven ; Watson, Ian A. / A space-based laser system for the deflection and manipulation of near Earth asteroids. Paper presented at International High Power Laser Ablation and Beamed Energy Propulsion Symposium, HPLA/BEP, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States.24 p.
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Gibbings, A, Vasile, M, Hopkins, J-M, Wayman, A, Eckersley, S & Watson, IA 2014, 'A space-based laser system for the deflection and manipulation of near Earth asteroids' Paper presented at International High Power Laser Ablation and Beamed Energy Propulsion Symposium, HPLA/BEP, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States, 21/04/14 - 25/06/14, .

A space-based laser system for the deflection and manipulation of near Earth asteroids. / Gibbings, Alison; Vasile, Massimiliano; Hopkins, John-Mark; Wayman, Alastair ; Eckersley, Steven ; Watson, Ian A.

2014. Paper presented at International High Power Laser Ablation and Beamed Energy Propulsion Symposium, HPLA/BEP, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - A space-based laser system for the deflection and manipulation of near Earth asteroids

AU - Gibbings, Alison

AU - Vasile, Massimiliano

AU - Hopkins, John-Mark

AU - Wayman, Alastair

AU - Eckersley, Steven

AU - Watson, Ian A.

PY - 2014/4/21

Y1 - 2014/4/21

N2 - Abstract Analysis gained from a series of experiments has demonstrated the effectiveness of laser ablation for the low thrust, contactless deflection and manipulation of Near Earth Asteroids. In vacuum, a 90 W continuous wave laser beam has been used to ablate a magnesium-iron silicate sample (olivine). The laser operated at a wavelength of 808 nm and provided intensities that were below the threshold of plasma formation. Olivine was use to represent a rocky and solid asteroidal body. Assessed parameters included the average massflow rate, divergence, temperature and velocity of the ejecta plume, and the height, density and absorptivity of the deposited ejecta. Experimental data was used to verify an improved ablation model. The improved model combined the energy balance of sublimation with the energy absorption within the Knudsen layer, the variation of flow with local pressure, the temperature of the target material and the partial re-condensation of the ablated material. It also enabled the performance of a space-based laser system to be reassessed. The capabilityof a moderately sized, conventional solar powered spacecraft was evaluated by its ability to deflect a small and irregular 4 m diameter asteroid by at least 1 m/s. Deflection had to be achieved with a total mission lifetime of three years. It was found to be an achievable and measurable objective. The laser (and its associated optical control) was designed using a simple combined beam expansion and focusing telescope. The mission study therefore verified the laser’s proof-of-concept, technology readiness and feasibility of its mission andsubsystem design. It also explored the additional opportunistic potential of the ablation process. The same technique can be used for the removal of space debris.

AB - Abstract Analysis gained from a series of experiments has demonstrated the effectiveness of laser ablation for the low thrust, contactless deflection and manipulation of Near Earth Asteroids. In vacuum, a 90 W continuous wave laser beam has been used to ablate a magnesium-iron silicate sample (olivine). The laser operated at a wavelength of 808 nm and provided intensities that were below the threshold of plasma formation. Olivine was use to represent a rocky and solid asteroidal body. Assessed parameters included the average massflow rate, divergence, temperature and velocity of the ejecta plume, and the height, density and absorptivity of the deposited ejecta. Experimental data was used to verify an improved ablation model. The improved model combined the energy balance of sublimation with the energy absorption within the Knudsen layer, the variation of flow with local pressure, the temperature of the target material and the partial re-condensation of the ablated material. It also enabled the performance of a space-based laser system to be reassessed. The capabilityof a moderately sized, conventional solar powered spacecraft was evaluated by its ability to deflect a small and irregular 4 m diameter asteroid by at least 1 m/s. Deflection had to be achieved with a total mission lifetime of three years. It was found to be an achievable and measurable objective. The laser (and its associated optical control) was designed using a simple combined beam expansion and focusing telescope. The mission study therefore verified the laser’s proof-of-concept, technology readiness and feasibility of its mission andsubsystem design. It also explored the additional opportunistic potential of the ablation process. The same technique can be used for the removal of space debris.

KW - asteroids

KW - laser ablation

KW - deflection

KW - exploration

KW - spacecraft

KW - experiments

UR - http://www.usasymposium.com/hplabep/

M3 - Paper

ER -

Gibbings A, Vasile M, Hopkins J-M, Wayman A, Eckersley S, Watson IA. A space-based laser system for the deflection and manipulation of near Earth asteroids. 2014. Paper presented at International High Power Laser Ablation and Beamed Energy Propulsion Symposium, HPLA/BEP, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States.