A smartphone based ophthalmoscope

Mario E. Giardini, Iain A. T. Livingstone, Stewart Jordan, Nigel M. Bolster, Tunde Peto, Matthew Burton, Andrew Bastawrous

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book

49 Citations (Scopus)
545 Downloads (Pure)


A low-cost alternative to the direct ophthalmoscope, a simple optical adapter for a smartphone, is described. It can overcome many of the technical challenges of fundoscopy, providing a high-resolution view of the retina through an un-dilated pupil. This can be used in locations with limited diagnostic resources to detect conditions such as glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Comparison of optic nerve images from commercial retinal screening cameras with the smartphone adapter demonstrates strong evidence for no difference in performance in glaucomatous disc grading (p=0.98, paired student t test, n=300).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)
Place of PublicationPiscataway, NJ
Number of pages4
ISBN (Print)9781424479276
Publication statusPublished - 6 Nov 2014
EventEngineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE - IL, Chicago, United States
Duration: 26 Aug 201430 Aug 2014


ConferenceEngineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • biomedical optical imaging
  • cameras
  • diseases
  • endoscopes
  • eye
  • smart phones
  • statistical analysis
  • telemedicine
  • medical diagnostic imaging
  • optical imaging


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  • Peek - Portable Eye Examination Kit

    Mario Ettore Giardini (Participant), Andrew Bastawrous (Participant), Iain A.T. Livingstone (Participant), Stewart Jordan (Participant) & Nigel Bolster (Participant)

    Impact: Impact - for External PortalHealth and welfare - new products, guidelines and services

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