A review of numerical modelling of multi-scale wind turbines and their environment

Katrina Calautit*, Angelo Aquino, John Kaiser Calautit, Payam Nejat, Fatemeh Jomehzadeh, Ben Richard Hughes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)


Global demand for energy continues to increase rapidly, due to economic and population growth, especially for increasing market economies. These lead to challenges and worries about energy security that can increase as more users need more energy resources. Also, higher consumption of fossil fuels leads to more greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming. Moreover, there are still more people without access to electricity. Several studies have reported that one of the rapidly developing source of power is wind energy and with declining costs due to technology and manufacturing advancements and concerns over energy security and environmental issues, the trend is predicted to continue. As a result, tools and methods to simulate and optimize wind energy technologies must also continue to advance. This paper reviews the most recently published works in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of micro to small wind turbines, building integrated with wind turbines, and wind turbines installed in wind farms. In addition, the existing limitations and complications included with the wind energy system modelling were examined and issues that needs further work are highlighted. This study investigated the current development of CFD modelling of wind energy systems. Studies on aerodynamic interaction among the atmospheric boundary layer or wind farm terrain and the turbine rotor and their wakes were investigated. Furthermore, CFD combined with other tools such as blade element momentum were examined.

Original languageEnglish
Article number24
Number of pages37
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 5 Mar 2018


  • aerodynamic interaction
  • atmospheric boundary layer (ABL)
  • blade element momentum (BEM)
  • building integrated with wind turbine
  • computational fluid dynamic (CFD)
  • micro to small wind turbine
  • wind energy systems
  • wind farm


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