A qualitative exploration of the enablers and barriers to the provision of outpatient clinics by hospital pharmacists

Gerald Bailey, Emma Dunlop, Paul Forsyth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: With increasing demands on the National Health Service (NHS), Scottish Government-led pharmacy strategy has prioritised the development and expansion of outpatient services. Pharmacist-led outpatient clinics have been shown to reduce hospital admissions and improve patient outcomes. However, expanding these contemporary models of care has proved challenging, and there are few qualitative data about the factors affecting the provision of these. Aim: This study aimed to explore the enablers and barriers to hospital pharmacists providing outpatient clinics within the largest health authority in Scotland, NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde (NHSGGC). Method: Between August and October 2020, one-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted virtually using the videoconferencing platform Microsoft Teams ®, with NHSGGC hospital pharmacists who did or did not provide clinics. Audio- and video-recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and underwent thematic analysis. Results: 16 hospital pharmacists were interviewed; 50% were clinic providers and 50% were not. Analysis generated seven themes: clinical or service need, individual factors, clinic structure and processes, additional clinical skills and training, competing priorities, macro-level pharmacy working, and external stakeholder relationships. Many of these were interdependent and had the potential to be an enabler or a barrier to clinic provision, depending on the context or individual. Conclusion: The enablers and barriers to hospital pharmacists providing outpatient clinics are multifaceted, incorporating individual, systematic and professional factors. The implementation of new national professional curricula may help address many of these factors, however prospective research needs to accompany this vision.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1013-1027
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Volume44
Issue number4
Early online date7 Jul 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022

Keywords

  • pharmacists
  • Scotland
  • United Kingdom
  • hospitals
  • pharmacy services
  • outpatients
  • qualitative research

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