A qualitative assessment and short-term mediation analysis of defeat, entrapment, and suicide

Susan Rasmussen, Robert Cramer, Laura Nascimbene, Ryan Robertson, Sam Cacase, Jessamiah Bowling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: The Integrated Motivational-Volitional Model (IMV) of Suicide is growing in empirical support. The present study advances IMV research through two aims: (1) to qualitatively probe the subjective experiences of defeat, internal entrapment, and external entrapment, and (2) conducting a 3-month prospective mediation analysis using quantitative and qualitative metrics of defeat and entrapment.
Methods: The study featured an online two-point survey separated by 3 months. Participants were 255 adults living in the United Kingdom.
Results: Persons endorsing qualitative defeat and internal entrapment in their narratives also showed higher quantitative scores on corresponding IMV and suicide-related self-report scales. Internal entrapment mediated the effect of baseline defeat on 3-month suicidal ideation, whereas external entrapment mediated the association of baseline defeat on 3-month suicide attempt likelihood. Quantitative assessment of entrapment was more significantly associated with suicide attempts and ideation within mediation tests compared to corresponding qualitative variables.
Conclusions: IMV model principles are largely supported by findings. Mediation results support further consideration of entrapment and defeat within clinical practice and public health-focused suicide research. Understanding the complexity of entrapment narratives represents an important next step for conducting qualitative IMV-focused research with minoritized and high-risk suicide populations.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSuicide and Life-Threatening Behavior
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 3 Aug 2023


  • suicidal ideation
  • suicide attempts
  • entrapment
  • defeat
  • integrated motivational-volitional model


Dive into the research topics of 'A qualitative assessment and short-term mediation analysis of defeat, entrapment, and suicide'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this