A pragmatic approach for engineering porous mannitol and mechanistic evaluation of particle performance

Ali Al-Khattawi, Jasdip Koner, Peter Rue, Dan Kirby, Yvonne Perrie, Ali Rajabi-Siahboomi, Afzal R. Mohammed

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18 Citations (Scopus)
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The importance of mannitol has increased recently as an emerging diluent for orodispersible dosage forms. The study aims to prepare spray dried mannitol retaining high porosity and mechanical strength for the development of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). Aqueous feed of d-mannitol (10% w/v) comprising ammonium bicarbonate, NH4HCO3 (5% w/v) as pore former was spray dried at inlet temperature of 110-170°C. Compacts were prepared at 151MPa and characterized for porosity, hardness and disintegration time. Particle morphology and drying mechanisms were studied using thermal (HSM, DSC and TGA) and polymorphic (XRD) methods. Tablet porosity increased from 0.20±0.002 for pure mannitol to 0.53±0.03 using fabricated porous mannitol. Disintegration time dropped by 50-77% from 135±5.29s for pure mannitol to 75.33±2.52-31.67±1.53s for mannitol 110-170°C. Hardness increased by 150% at 110°C (258.67±28.89N) and 30% at 150°C (152.70±10.58N) compared to pure mannitol tablets (104.17±1.70N). Increasing inlet temperature resulted in reducing tablet hardness due to generation of 'micro-sponge'-like particles exhibiting significant elastic recovery. Impact of mannitol polymorphism on plasticity/elasticity cannot be ruled out as a mixture of α and β polymorphs formed upon spray drying.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Early online date7 May 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2015


  • mannitol
  • porosity
  • orally disintegrating tablet
  • spray drying
  • plasticity
  • hardness
  • particle engineering


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