A practical physical watermarking approach to detect replay attacks in a CPS

Chuadhry Mujeeb Ahmed, Venkata Reddy Palleti, Vishrut Kumar Mishra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) are considered as an integration of computing, networking, and physical processes. In such systems physical processes are monitored and controlled by the combination of computation, communication, and control technologies. Examples of CPSs include process control systems, medical devices, robots, and critical infrastructures such as water treatment plants, water distribution systems, and power grid. Often, these systems are vulnerable to attacks as the cyber components such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) workstations, Human Machine Interface (HMI), and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are potential targets for attackers. Replay attacks are easy to perform on such systems and can potentially lead to significant damages to the system. Therefore, timely detection of replay attacks is important to mitigate the attack consequences. In this work, we propose a practical watermarking technique to detect the attacks. Experiments are performed on a real WAter DIstribution system (WADI) to explore how to tackle the replay attacks using watermarking signal.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-146
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Process Control
Early online date24 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2022


  • cyber Physical system
  • water distribution system
  • replay attacks
  • design of watermarking signal
  • attack detection


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