A pilot study investigating the intra and inter-rater reliability of siliconcoach within the field of gait analysis

Emma Davidson, Roy Bowers

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


Siliconcoach P&O Clinical Movement Data is a mobile two-dimensional video analysis system designed for the Prosthetics and Orthotics clinical environment. This pilot study investigated Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater reliability of the P&O Clinical Movement Data for measuring kinematics during gait analysis. Sixteen staff and senior students from the National Centre for Prosthetics and Orthotics and the Bioengineering Department, University of Strathclyde, measured ankle, knee and hip angles at Initial Contact, Mid Stance and Terminal Stance on three analysis sessions at one week intervals. To investigate whether predefined anatomical markers improved reliability of measurements, two videos of the same volunteer were provided, one with markers. To assess Inter-Rater reliability three participants measured knee flexion at initial contact on videos of 15 different subjects using predefined anatomical markers. Significance level was set at p<0.05, with reliability ICC 0.7 – 0.9. Intra-rater reliability at the hip with markers throughout gait is excellent for Initial Contact and Mid Stance (ICC= 0.999), and for Terminal Stance (ICC=1.000). Confidence Intervals for all three were very narrow (CI = 0.998-1.000 and 0.999-1.000) and were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). Without markers, Intra-rater reliability at the hip whilst still statistically significant (p<0.01), was less reliable (ICC < 0.7). Reliable Results were recorded at all joints in terminal stance with markers, but not without. Measurement of knee angle at initial contact proved reliable when inter-rater reliability was assessed (ICC = 0.867), with a fairly narrow confidence interval (CI = 0.710-0.949) (P<0.05). Results may have been adversely affected by the need to exclude measurements that were not taken according to the protocol in this relatively small sample. Using predefined anatomical markers increases reliability. Results indicate that Intra-rater reliability of Siliconcoach software varies across the gait cycle and was best in terminal stance. Inter-rater reliability was high.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 6 Feb 2013
EventISPO 2013 World Congress - HICC, Hyderabad, India
Duration: 4 Feb 20137 Feb 2013


ConferenceISPO 2013 World Congress
Abbreviated titleISPO2013
OtherInclusion, Participation & Empowerment
Internet address


  • gait analysis
  • pilot study
  • intra and inter-rater reliability
  • siliconcoach

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