A piezoelectric cantilever-asymmetric-conical-pendulum-based energy harvesting under multi-directional excitation

Yunshun Zhang*, Wanshu Wang*, Rencheng Zheng, Kimihiko Nakano, Matthew P. Cartmell

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This paper introduces a novel approach to address the challenges faced by traditional unidirectional cantilever-based energy harvesters in adapting to multi-directional vibration environments. The proposed solution combines a flexible cantilever with an asymmetric-conical-pendulum structure which consists of two different concentrated end masses and a rigid thin rod By investigation of energy interchange relationship between the kinetic feature of the asymmetric pendulum and beam bending vibration under horizontal and vertical excitations respectively from base movements, utilizing the Lagrange's theorem and multiple-scale method, 1:2 internal resonance can be induced for enabling the delivery of multi-directional motion of pendulums to the unidirectional bending of cantilever. On this basis, the advantages of the proposed system are revealed by comparing with traditional piezoelectric cantilever and piezoelectric cantilever-single-pendulum systems. Furthermore, the performance of the voltage amplitude and operational bandwidth was potentially improved up to 128.5 % and 229.8 % under x-direction. In addition, it is confirmed that its maximum voltage RMS value is 57.9 % and 11.4 % higher than that of the piezoelectric cantilever-single-pendulum in the x- and z-directions, owing to its multi-peak energy harvesting over variable excitation amplitudes. Therefore, the feasibility and superiorities of the proposed configuration are demonstrated theoretically and numerically in this paper.
Original languageEnglish
Article number118080
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Sound and Vibration
Early online date16 Oct 2023
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2024


  • piezoelectric energy harvesting
  • arbitrary direction
  • asymmetric-conical-pendulum
  • internal resonance
  • energy interchange


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