A pharmacokinetic study of a combination of beta adrenoreceptor antagonists: In the isolated perfused ovine eye

Jenifer Mains, Lay Ean Tan, Clive Wilson, Andrew Urquhart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The treatment of posterior eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, is of growing interest as the number of people affected by these conditions continues to rise. This study utilises the methods of cassette dosing and the perfused ovine eye model – to reduce animal usage and therefore animal time – to show that for a series of beta adrenoreceptor antagonists, lipophilicity is a key physicochemical property that governs drug distribution within the eye. Following intravitreal injection, lipophilic beta adrenoreceptor antagonists penetrate to the posterior eye, where they bind to the choroid and reside in the retina at greater concentrations than more hydrophilic beta adrenoreceptor antagonists, which preferentially penetrate to the anterior eye.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)393-401
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Issue number2
Early online date19 Nov 2011
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012


  • ocular
  • pharmacokinetics
  • mass spectrometry
  • isolated perfused
  • beta adrenoreceptor antagonist

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