A parametric study: hull roughness effect on ship frictional resistance

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


Ship resistance is very important in terms of ship performance and fuel
consumption. The more resistance a ship has, the more fuel it consumes for the
same range.
Ship resistance can be broken into two parts; frictional resistance and residuary
resistance. Especially for merchant ships which sail with normal or low velocity,
frictional resistance may be 60-90% of the total resistance and it is directly
affected by surface roughness; namely physical and biological roughness. Hull
roughness leads to frictional resistance increase which means fuel penalty. Marine
coatings are widely used in order to avoid or minimise fouling and hull roughness,
hence increase in frictional resistance.
This paper outlines details of a parametric numerical study which was carried out
to monitor the effect of changing surface roughness of marine coatings on ship
frictional resistance. This investigation was made by means of a computational
fluid dynamics (CFD) based software (STAR-CCM+).
Firstly, towing test simulations of a flat plate were conducted and the results were
compared with the experimental results given in literature to validate the model.
After the validation procedure, a parametric study was carried out to obtain
frictional resistance and frictional drag coefficient variations depending on various
hull roughness conditions. Moreover, a simple formulation which correlates the
roughness height and frictional drag coefficient was obtained within the validated
roughness height range and speed. Finally, the results were presented in both
graphical and tabular forms and discussed in details.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013
EventMarine Coatings Conference - London, United Kingdom
Duration: 18 Apr 2013 → …


ConferenceMarine Coatings Conference
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Period18/04/13 → …


  • parametric study
  • hull roughness
  • ship
  • frictional resistance


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