A parallel group randomised open blinded evaluation of acceptance and commitment therapy for depression after psychosis: pilot trial outcomes (ADAPT)

Andrew Gumley, Ross White, Andy Briggs, Ian Ford, Sarah Barry, Corinna Stewart, Sara Beedie, Jacqueline McTaggart, Caoimhe Clarke, Rachel Macleod, Emma Lidstone, Bruno Salgado Riveros, Robin Young, Hamish McLeod

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BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the major contributors to poorer quality of life amongst individuals with psychosis and schizophrenia. The study was designed as a Pilot Trial to determine the parameters of a larger, definitive pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depression after psychosis (ACTdp) for individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who also meet diagnostic criteria for major depression. METHODS: Participants were required to meet criteria for schizophrenia and major depression. Blinded follow-ups were undertaken at 5-months (end of treatment) and at 10-months (5-months posttreatment). Primary outcomes were depression as measured by the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). RESULTS: A total of 29 participants were randomised to ACTdp + Standard Care (SC) (n=15) or SC alone (n=14). We did not observe significant differences between groups on the CDSS total score at 5-months (Coeff=-1.43, 95%CI -5.17, 2.32, p=0.45) or at 10-months (Coeff=1.8, 95%CI -2.10, 5.69, p=0.36). In terms of BDI, we noted a statistically significant effect in favour of ACTdp+SC at 5-months (Coeff=-8.38, 95%CI -15.49, -1.27, p=0.02) but not at 10-months (Coeff=-4.85, 95%CI -12.10, 2.39, p=0.18). We also observed significant effects on psychological flexibility at 5-months (Coeff=-8.83, 95%CI -14.94, -2.71, plt;0.01) but not 10-months (Coeff=-4.92, 95%CI -11.09, 1.25, p=0.11). IMPLICATIONS: In this first RCT of a psychological therapy with depression as the primary outcome, ACT is a promising intervention for depression in the context of psychosis. A further large-scale definitive randomised controlled trial is required to determine effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN: 33306437.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-150
Number of pages8
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Early online date25 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017


  • scizophrenia
  • depression
  • randomised controlled trial
  • pilot
  • acceptance and commitment therapy

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