A novel cyber-risk assessment method for ship systems

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Recent advances in the maritime industry include research and development of new sophisticated ships with a number of smart functionalities and enhanced autonomy. The new functions and autonomy levels though come at the cost of increased connectivity. This results in increased ship vulnerability to cyber-attacks, which may lead to financial loss, environmental pollution, safety accidents. The aim of this study is to propose a novel method for cybersecurity risk assessment of ship systems. In this novel method, the Cyber-Preliminary Hazard Analysis method steps are enriched with new steps supporting the identification of cyber-attack scenarios and the risk assessment implementation. The proposed method is applied for the cyber-risk assessment and design enhancement of the navigation and propulsion systems of an inland waterways autonomous vessel. The results demonstrate that several critical scenarios can arise on the investigated autonomous vessel due to known vulnerabilities. These can be sufficiently controlled by introducing appropriate modifications to the systems design.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104908
Number of pages14
JournalSafety Science
Early online date23 Jul 2020
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2020


  • cybersecurity
  • safety
  • autonomous inland vessel
  • navigation and propulsion systems


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