We present a new approach to the Sachs-Wolfe effect, which is based on the dynamics of photons in a space and time-varying gravitational field. We consider the influence of plasma dispersion effects on photon propagation, and establish the limits of validity of the usual results of the standard cosmological approach, for the large scale temperature anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. New dynamical contributions to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect are also discussed.
- relativistic ionization fronts
- photon acceleration