A multi-segment kinematic model of the foot with a novel definition of forefoot motion for use in clinical gait analysis during walking

T. Jenkyn, A.C. Nicol

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    76 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    A multi-segment kinematic model of the foot was developed for use in a gait analysis laboratory. The foot was divided into hindfoot, talus, midfoot and medial and lateral forefoot segments. Six functional joints were defined: ankle and subtalar joints, frontal and transverse plane motions of the hindfoot relative to midfoot, supination/pronation twist of the forefoot relative to midfoot and medial longitudinal arch height-to-length ratio. Twelve asymptomatic subjects were tested during barefoot walking with a six-camera optical stereometric system and auto-reflective markers organized in triads. Repeatability of the joint motions was tested using coefficients of multiple correlation. Ankle and subtalar joint motions and twisting of the forefoot were most repeatable. Hindfoot motions were least repeatable both within-subjects and between-subjects. Hindfoot and forefoot pronation in the frontal plane was found to coincide with dropping of the medial longitudinal arch between early to mid-stance, followed by supination and rising of the arch in late stance and swing phase. This multi-segment foot model addresses an unfortunate shortcoming in current gait analysis practice-the inability to measure motion within the foot. Such measurements are crucial if gait analysis is to remain relevant in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative treatment of the foot and ankle.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages3271-3278
    Number of pages7
    JournalJournal of Biomechanics
    Volume40
    Issue number14
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2007

    Fingerprint

    Gait analysis
    Arches
    Gait
    Biomechanical Phenomena
    Walking
    Foot
    Kinematics
    Subtalar Joint
    Pronation
    Supination
    Ankle Joint
    Orthopedics
    Optical systems
    Joints
    Talus
    Optical Devices
    Cameras
    Ankle

    Keywords

    • kinematics
    • gait analysis
    • hindfoot
    • midfoot
    • forefoot
    • ankle
    • subtalar
    • biomechanics

    Cite this

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    abstract = "A multi-segment kinematic model of the foot was developed for use in a gait analysis laboratory. The foot was divided into hindfoot, talus, midfoot and medial and lateral forefoot segments. Six functional joints were defined: ankle and subtalar joints, frontal and transverse plane motions of the hindfoot relative to midfoot, supination/pronation twist of the forefoot relative to midfoot and medial longitudinal arch height-to-length ratio. Twelve asymptomatic subjects were tested during barefoot walking with a six-camera optical stereometric system and auto-reflective markers organized in triads. Repeatability of the joint motions was tested using coefficients of multiple correlation. Ankle and subtalar joint motions and twisting of the forefoot were most repeatable. Hindfoot motions were least repeatable both within-subjects and between-subjects. Hindfoot and forefoot pronation in the frontal plane was found to coincide with dropping of the medial longitudinal arch between early to mid-stance, followed by supination and rising of the arch in late stance and swing phase. This multi-segment foot model addresses an unfortunate shortcoming in current gait analysis practice-the inability to measure motion within the foot. Such measurements are crucial if gait analysis is to remain relevant in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative treatment of the foot and ankle.",
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    AB - A multi-segment kinematic model of the foot was developed for use in a gait analysis laboratory. The foot was divided into hindfoot, talus, midfoot and medial and lateral forefoot segments. Six functional joints were defined: ankle and subtalar joints, frontal and transverse plane motions of the hindfoot relative to midfoot, supination/pronation twist of the forefoot relative to midfoot and medial longitudinal arch height-to-length ratio. Twelve asymptomatic subjects were tested during barefoot walking with a six-camera optical stereometric system and auto-reflective markers organized in triads. Repeatability of the joint motions was tested using coefficients of multiple correlation. Ankle and subtalar joint motions and twisting of the forefoot were most repeatable. Hindfoot motions were least repeatable both within-subjects and between-subjects. Hindfoot and forefoot pronation in the frontal plane was found to coincide with dropping of the medial longitudinal arch between early to mid-stance, followed by supination and rising of the arch in late stance and swing phase. This multi-segment foot model addresses an unfortunate shortcoming in current gait analysis practice-the inability to measure motion within the foot. Such measurements are crucial if gait analysis is to remain relevant in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative treatment of the foot and ankle.

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