The building sector contributes a large proportion of the world's total final energy consumption. As a result, considerable attention has been paid to energy efficiency in the building sector. At the current stage, building retrofitting is the most feasible and cost-effective method to improve building energy efficiency. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization model for life-cycle cost analysis and retrofitting planning of buildings. A net present value (NPV) based economic analysis taking life-cycle cost into account is introduced to formulate the objective functions. In addition, a combination of multiple alternative measures for each retrofitting intervention is considered in determining the optimal solution. The presented model aims at maximizing both energy savings and economic benefits during a selected time frame. It allows decision makers to make best use of the available budget. A differential evolution (DE) algorithm is proposed to solve this optimization problem. The result of the case study illustrates the effectiveness of the multi-objective optimization model to support the planning of energy-efficient and cost-effective building retrofitting projects.
- building retrofitting
- multi-objective optimization
- life-cycle cost
- multiple retrofitting measures