A model-based study of transmit-receive longitudinal arrays for inspection of subsurface defects

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Dual matrix transmit-receive longitudinal (TRL) arrays have been shown to provide an improved signal to noise ratio in the near field zone which makes them the most suitable array configuration for the inspection of near-surface defects. This study aims to compare the performance of different configurations for transmit-receive longitudinal matrix arrays. For this purpose, four matrix configurations of 2 × 32, 4 × 16, 4 × 32, and 8 × 16 elements are investigated using EXTENDE CIVA modeling package. The array operating frequencies investigated are either 5 MHz or 10 MHz. The effect of different natural focal depths, arrays separation distances, dynamic electronic depth focusing, and electronic beam skewing for these TRL arrays are considered in models prepared in CIVA. The inspection of a series of flat bottom holes extended up to a few millimeters under the surface using the selected TRL configurations is also investigated in the study. It is found that the performance of focusing for near-surface areas is more efficient using the 4 × 16 and 8 × 16 elements configurations as compared with the others, and the signal amplitudes of the defects located deeper in the target material are almost independent of the configuration.
Original languageEnglish
Article number031102
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Diagnostics and Prognostics of Engineering Systems
Issue number3
Early online date25 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2020


  • transmit-receive longitudinal (TRL) matrix arrays
  • model-based ultrasound studies
  • phased array technology
  • non-destructive testing/evaluation
  • ultrasound matrix arrays
  • materials testing
  • sensors
  • ultrasonic testing


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